Bryan anthony quotes

Bryan anthony quotes DEFAULT

Whoever controls the narrative controls history. This is a powerful message. Those who ignore it will remain blind to the manipulation of others, but those who get it, like the people of the American Revolution, will be able to challenge abusive authority and take control of their destinies.

— Ray Raphael

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In the Beginning,graphite on paper, Bryan Anthony Moore, 2013. 

Introduction: National History Myth-story

United States history often deals with times so far removed from experience that they’ve become fabled times of legend, which various groups edit or mythologize at will.

Thomas Jefferson, in his personal library, classified the Bible as ancient history. However, he believed that the book had been altered and he thought that he was qualified to redact what he perceived as the inaccuracies. In Jefferson’s book, The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth, he excised the miracles out of his Bible with a razor and pasted the non-miraculous passages into an order of his liking to create his personal version of history. In a similar manner, disparate groups are presently editing history to their liking, selectively adding quotes by esteemed personages to the conservative or liberal canon and omitting or deliberately obfuscating any contrary to their beliefs.

Among these groups are Tea Party Republicans, combining libertarian ideas on taxation with conservative Christian religious beliefs. As unlimited corporate campaign finance donations have led to national and state legislatures that are essentially filled with corporate sponsored government officials, wealthy individuals and corporations have gained an ever-increasing, disproportionate means to disperse their propaganda. From cradle to grave, conservative historical and religious propaganda is being thrust upon our citizens, disguised as objective historical or scientific fact.

The political system that we have in place is not working for the benefit of the majority, but rather for the benefit of the wealthy. As stated by author Matt Taibbi:

Although poverty rates largely declined during the 1990s, offering at least one possible explanation for the drop in violent crime, poverty rates rose sharply during the 2000s. At the start of that decade, poverty levels hovered just above 10 percent. By 2008 they were up to 13.2 percent. By 2009 the number was 14.3 percent. By 2010, 15.3 percent. All this squares with what most people who lived in Middle America knew, and know, instinctively. Despite what we’re being told about a post-2008 recovery, despite what the rising stock market seems to indicate, the economy is mostly worse, real incomes are mostly declining, and money is mostly scarcer.[1]

Through campaign contributions, lobbyists, and back-room deals, the wealthy employ all aspects of the state apparatus, including those of an ideological nature, in the furtherance of their rule. Louis Althusser described the nature of this employment in his essay “Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses”:

What are the Ideological State Apparatuses (ISAs)? They must not be confused with the (Repressive) State Apparatus. In Marxist theory, the State Apparatus (SA) contains: the Government, the Administration, the Army, the Police, the Courts, the Prisons, etc. . . . the State Apparatus in question “functions by violence” . . . I shall call Ideological State Apparatuses a certain number of realities . . . in the form of distinct and specialized institutions. . . . : the religious ISA (the system of the different churches), the educational ISA (the system of the different public and private ‘schools’) [emphasis mine], . . . the communications ISA (press, radio and television, etc.), the cultural ISA (literature, the arts, sports, etc. . . . it is clear that whereas the unified – (Repressive) State Apparatus belongs entirely to the public domain, much the larger part of the Ideological State Apparatuses (in their apparent dispersion) are part, . . . of the private domain. . . . The distinction between the public and the private is a distinction internal to bourgeois law, . . . The domain of the State escapes it because the latter is “above the law”: the State, which is the State of the ruling class, is neither public nor private.[2]

Tellingly, in the United States, the distinctions between public and private have blurred even further than the merger described in Althusser’s essay. Prisons are now often private, corporations such as Halliburton and Blackwater/Academi have assumed many of the Army’s tasks, and police departments farm out traffic citations to private companies, etc. In other words, our republic is in the hands of the 1%. Although there are exceptions within this small group of wealthy individuals, for the most part, they subscribe to and promulgate a conservative ideology. This “free market” ideology portrays the ultra-wealthy as hard working, job creating, and benevolent geniuses.

Conservative ideology has infiltrated every facet of government power. My paper is concerned with the effects of this ideological influence on public education, particularly the resultant propagandistic history, which I call myth-story or mythstory. The substitution of knowledge with falsehoods supporting conservative, free-market ideology, rather than critical thought, is toxic to the functioning of a democratic system.

Using the Texas State Board of Education’s textbook manipulations[3] as a case study, this paper identifies, investigates and disputes the fictions that are being taught to our children through the machinations of the financial elite, and proposes democratic alternatives to partisan ideological indoctrination.

Notes

[1] Taibbi, Matt. (The Divide: American Injustice in the Age of the Wealth Gap. First Edition. New York: Spiegel & Grau, 2014), xv-xvi.

The consequences of this economic inequality are many. For instance, as Taibbi continues;

But throughout all this time, violent crime has gone down. It continues to decline today. Counterintuitively, more poverty has not created more crime. The third piece of information that makes no sense is that during this same period of time, the prison population in America has exploded. In 1991 there were about one million Americans behind bars. By 2012 the number was over2.2 million, a more than 100 percent increase. Our prison population, in fact, is now the biggest in the history of human civilization. There are more people in the United States either on parole or in jail today (around 6 million total) than there ever were at any time in Stalin’s gulags. For what it’s worth, there are also more black men in jail right now than there were in slavery at its peak. See if this syllogism works, then. Poverty goes up; Crime goes down; Prison population doubles.

[2] Althusser, Louis. On Ideology. Translated by Ben Brewster. London ; New York: Verso, 2008.

[3] The Texas State Board of Education approved the current textbook standards in 2010. The new textbooks that met those standard were approved in November of 2014.

Chapter 1: Fact, Fiction and Founding Faithers

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Thomas Jeffersnowman,graphite on paper, Bryan Anthony Moore, 2013. 

When the concerns came in, from multiple people, and that had weight too, we were trying to sort things out, said Thomas Nelson Senior Vice President and Publisher Brian Hampton. Were these matters of opinion? Were they differences of interpretation? But as we got into it, our conclusion was that the criticisms were correct. There were historical details — matters of fact, not matters of opinion, that were not supported at all.

— NPR, August 9th, 2012.

Critique of David Barton

Author’s such as David Barton, one of the “experts” that advised the Texas State Board of Education on it’s textbook standards, portray our nation’s Founders as political conservatives that drew their ideas from uncritical obeisance to biblical principles. If “Founders” is meant to refer to the entire generation that lived through the Revolutionary War years and is also inclusive of the latter period in which the Constitution was ratified, then the Founders would in reality, be a very diverse group including men of many religious sects and those that rejected organized religion completely. However, the most notable of these Founders (those that penned the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and served in the top tiers of leadership), were for the most part, liberal revolutionaries inspired by John Locke and the Baron Montesquieu. These Founders were men steeped in rational discourse and the questioning of authority that was so crucial to the Age of Reason.

Barton’s latest book, The Jefferson Lies, was pulled from publication by its conservative Christian publisher, Thomas Nelson, whose representative Brian Hampton, cited the lack of “basic truth” in the book as the reason for the publisher’s extremely rare decision to withdraw the book from the market:

“When the concerns came in, from multiple people, and that had weight too, we were trying to sort things out,” said Thomas Nelson Senior Vice President and Publisher Brian Hampton. “Were these matters of opinion? Were they differences of interpretation? But as we got into it, our conclusion was that the criticisms were correct. There were historical details — matters of fact, not matters of opinion, that were not supported at all.” The book has already been pulled off the Thomas Nelson website, and the publisher is in the process of pulling down its availability as an e-book from retail partners. Publishing rights are being reverted to the author, and the physical copies of the book are in the process of being removed from bookstores. “The truth is, the withdrawing of a book from the market is extremely rare. It’s so rare I can’t think of the last time we’ve done this,” Hampton said. But, he said, “If there are matters of fact not correctly handled or the basic truth is not there, we would make a decision based on that.”[4]

David Barton’s education consists of a Bachelor of Arts degree in religious education from Oral Roberts University. Through his appearances on Fox News, Barton is chief among the self styled historians serving fictional historical fare to the adult population even as he contributes to the downfall of historical texts for children. Though his book on Jefferson has been withdrawn by Thomas Nelson Publishing, he offers it for sale, along with his other works, from his personal website. Many libraries have already stocked the Thomas Nelson edition of the book. I had to request the book by being placed on a waiting list at my local public library due to high demand.

In The Jefferson Lies, with a foreword by Glenn Beck, David Barton sets out to “debunk” what he says are six “lies” about the life of Thomas Jefferson. These “lies” are not attributed to any specific sources and are often such an exaggerated version of what Barton claims are “liberal beliefs,” that they essentially serve as dominoes that Barton can then easily knock down, though he often resorts to misinformation to do so.

Among the chapters is one titled LIE #3 Thomas Jefferson Wrote His Own Bible and Edited Out the Things He Didn’t Agree With.[5] Here in the chapter title, as elsewhere in the chapter, Barton accuses those with views divergent from his own (though he doesn’t name those that hold these beliefs) of exaggerated beliefs that, indeed, in some cases are not true; Jefferson, of course, didn’t technically write his own Bible, he edited only the gospels of the New Testament and he titled the work The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth, rather than the “Jefferson Bible” as it is colloquially called. However, Barton makes his argument with the mistaken assumption that any view on the subject of Jefferson’s faith consists of one of only two possible options: one being that Thomas Jefferson was a conservative Christian with beliefs that one would find orthodox in any mainstream protestant denomination today, with the only other possibility being that Jefferson was an Atheist that disliked Christianity, Jesus, and the Bible.

In doing so Barton completely ignores the Deist worldview that many Enlightenment era thinkers espoused. This precludes the possibility that Jefferson appreciated Jesus as the best example of moral doctrines he had found, yet thought that much that had been ascribed to him had been done so in error or to purposely corrupt his teachings. To understand that Jefferson was a Deist with very unorthodox beliefs, requires a subtlety of understanding that not all beliefs fall within a strict religious/atheist divide, meaning that beliefs reside on a continuum rather than existing in a strict dichotomy. An eighteenth century American’s individual’s beliefs could be Anglican, Christian Deist, Deist, Baptist or Atheist, among other possibilities.

Barton states that, “Logic would tell us that if Jefferson wrote his own Bible, he would do so only if he were thoroughly dissatisfied with the traditional Bible, especially its inclusion of the supernatural.”[6] I don’t quite understand Barton’s position that “logic” would impart the knowledge that supernatural elements of the Bible would “especially” be the reason for Jefferson’s undertaking, but as Jefferson stated, “things impossible . . . superstitions” were a significant factor in his editing of the gospels. In a letter to William Short dated 4, August 1820, Jefferson wrote:

We find in the writings of [Jesus’] biographers matter of two distinct descriptions. First a groundwork of vulgar ignorance, of things impossible, of superstitions, fanaticisms and fabrications[emphasis mine]. Intermixed with these again, are sublime ideas of the Supreme Being, aphorisms, and precepts of the purest morality and benevolence, sanctioned by a life of humility, innocence and simplicity of manners, neglect of riches, absence of worldly ambition and honors, with an eloquence and persuasiveness which have not been surpassed. These could not be the intentions of the groveling authors [the authors of the gospels] who related them. They are far beyond the powers of their feeble minds. They show there was a character, a subject of their history, whose splendid conceptions were above suspicions being interpolations from their hands. Can we be at a loss in separating such materials and ascribing each to its original author? The difference is obvious to the eye and to the understanding, and we may read as we run to each his part; and I will venture to affirm that he who, as I have done, will undertake to winnow this grain from the chaff, will find it not to require a moment’s consideration. The parts fall asunder of themselves, as would those of an image of metal and clay.[7]

In The Jefferson Lies, Barton claims that, “There is no ‘Jefferson Bible,’ and Jefferson did not produce any work for the purpose of deleting the miraculous and supernatural.”[8]

Though Jefferson’s work is informally referred to by that title, it is technically debatable whether or not there is a “Jefferson Bible,” as even Jefferson did not call his book by that name – but Barton’s assertion that Jefferson “did not produce any work for the purpose of deleting the miraculous and supernatural,” is completely false. The aforementioned letter to William Short makes it readily evident that Jefferson believed the writers of the gospels had corrupted the gospels, had possessed “feeble minds” and had added “a groundwork of vulgar ignorance, of things impossible, of superstitions, fanaticisms and fabrications” to the story of Jesus’ life.

Lest we should be unclear of Jefferson’s opinion on the veracity of the Bible as a whole, or of the Gospels which he edited, we can read what he wrote to William Short on the matter, in his cover letter to the work dated April 13, 1820 (please note that I have left archaic spellings intact as they are easily decipherable):

This Syllabus is meant to place the character of Jesus in it’s true and high light, as no imposter himself, but a great Reformer of the Hebrew code of religion, it is not to be understood that I am with him in all his doctrines. . . . Among the sayings & discourses imputed to him by his biographers, I find many passages of fine imagination, correct morality, and of the most lovely benevolence: and others again of so much ignorance, so much absurdity, so much untruth; charlatanism, and imposture, as to pronounce it impossible that such contradictions should have proceeded from the same being.

I separate therefore the gold from the dross; restore to him the former, & leave the latter to the stupidity of some, and roguery of others of his disciples. . . . I read them as I do those of other antient and modern moralists, with a mixture of approbation and dissent[emphasis mine].[9]

Critique of Larry Schweikart and Michael Allen

David Barton is far from being alone in his publication of pseudo-historical “facts” tailored to conservative religious propaganda. On page 71 of A Patriot’s History of the United States, a book written by conservative authors Larry Schweikart and Michael Allen and titled as a rebuke to Howard Zinn’s A People’s History of the United States, the authors state:

It goes without saying, that most of these men were steeped in the traditions and teachings of Christianity—almost half the signers of the Declaration of Independence had some form of seminary training or degree. John Adams, certainly and somewhat derogatorily viewed by his contemporaries as the most pious of the early Revolutionaries [emphasis mine], claimed that the Revolution “connected, in one indissoluble bond, the principles of civil government with the principles of Christianity.”[10]

In reading the above quote regarding John Adams and his fellow “Founders”, we again encounter this inference that the Christianity of the founders was a monolith rather than a big tent that could and did accommodate Episcopalians, Quakers, Catholics, Christian Deists and Unitarians. If we are to take the description of Adams “as the most pious of the early Revolutionaries,” as a mark of his religiosity, then we must conclude from the letters he exchanged with Jefferson that his was a “religiosity” inclined to question the accuracy of The Ten Commandments, the Gospels, and the rest of the contents of the Bible. We can read this in the following excerpt from a letter to Jefferson, dated November 14, 1813, which I quote at length (please note that I have left the archaic spellings and grammar intact as they are of the period at issue and easily decipherable):

Have you ever met a book, the design of which is to prove, that the Ten Commandments, as We have them in our Catechisms and hung up in our Churches, were not the Ten Commandments written by the Finger of God upon tables, delivered to Moses on Mount Sinai and broken by him in a passion with Aaron for his golden calf, nor those afterwards engraved by him on Tables of Stone; but a very different Set of Commandments? There is such a book by J. W. Goethens Schristen. Berlin 1775–1779. I wish to See this Book. You will See the Subject and perceive the question in Exodus 20. 1–17 . . . &c.

I will make a Covenant with all this People. Observe that which I command this day.

1 Thou Shall not adore any other God. Therefore take heed, not to enter into covenant, with the Inhabitants of this country; neither take for your Sons, their daughters in marriage. They would allure thee to the Worship of false Gods. Much less Shall you in any place, erect Images.

2 The Feast of unleavened bread, Shall thou keep. Seven days, Shall thou eat unleavened bread, at the time of the month Abib; to remember that about that time, I delivered thee from Egypt.

3 Every first born of the mother is mine; the male of thine herd, be it Stock or flock. But you Shall replace the first born of an Ass with a Sheep. The first born of your Sons Shall you redeem. No Man Shall appear before me with empty hands.

4 Six days Shall thou labour: the Seventh day, thou shall rest from ploughing and gathering.

5 The Feast of Weeks shalt thou keep, with the firstlings of the wheat Harvest: and the Feast of Harvesting, at the end of the year.

6 Thrice, in every year, all male persons shall appear before the Lord. Nobody shall invade your Country, as long as you obey this Command.

7 Thou shall not Sacrifice the blood of a Sacrifice of mine, upon leavened bread.

8 The Sacrifice of the Passover Shall not remain, till the next day.

9 The Firstlings of the produce of your land, thou Shalt bring to the House of the Lord.

10 Thou shalt not boil the kid, while it is yet Sucking.

And the Lord Spake to Moses: Write these Words; as, after these Words I made with you, and with Israel a Covenant.

I know not whether Goethens translated or abridged from the Hebrew, or whether he used any translation Greek, Latin, or German. But he differs in form and Words, Somewhat from our Version. Exod. 34. 10. to 28. The Sense Seems to be the Same. The Tables were the evidence of the covenant, by which the Almighty attached the People of Israel to himself. By these laws they were Seperated from all other nations, and were reminded of the principal Epochas of their History. When and where originated our Ten commandments? The Tables and The Ark were lost. Authentic copies, in few, if any hands; the ten Precepts could not be observed, and were little remembered. If the Book of Deuteronomy was compiled, during or after the Babilonian Captivity, from Traditions, the Error or amendment might come in there . . . I admire your Employment, in Selecting the Philosophy and Divinity of Jesus and Seperating it from all intermixtures. If I had Eyes and Nerves, I would go through both Testaments and mark all that I understand.[11]

Clearly John Adams took a critical view toward the contents of the Bible and many of the teachings of mainstream Christianity, such as the complete infallibility of the Bible, questioning the origin and the accuracy of even the Ten Commandments, which Texas’ textbooks would have students believe, were inspirational to the Founders in drafting our Constitution and in founding our nation.

John Adams

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Adams vs. Jefferson,graphite on paper, Bryan Anthony Moore, 2013. 

In the following letter, Adams gives a description of the nature of his faith and his rebuke of Calvinist Christians and believers in the Athanasian Divines (meaning the Holy Trinity), which between them would include all Protestant and Catholic denominations extant in the United States both in Adams’ era and ours. On September 14, 1818, John Adams writes:

God has infinite wisdom, goodness, and power; he created the universe; his duration is eternal, a parte ante and a parte post. His presence is as extensive as space. What is space? An infinite spherical vacuum. He created this speck of dirt and the human species for his glory; and with the deliberate design of making nine tenths of our species miserable for ever for his glory. This is the doctrine of Christian theologians, in general, ten to one.

In the above statement, Adams criticizes the mainstream Christian theology of his contemporaries. He continues:

Now, my friend, can prophecies or miracles convince you or me that infinite benevolence, wisdom, and power, created, and preserves for a time, innumerable millions, to make them miserable for ever, for his own glory? Wretch! What is his glory? Is he ambitious? Does he want promotion? Is he vain, tickled with adulation, exulting and triumphing in his power and the sweetness of his vengeance? Pardon me, my Maker, for these awful questions. My answer to them is always ready. I believe no such things. My adoration of the author of the universe is too profound and too sincere. The love of God and his creation — delight, joy, triumph, exultation in my own existence — though but an atom, a molecule organ-ique in the universe — are my religion.

Howl, snarl, bite, ye Calvinistic, ye Athanasian divines, if you will; ye will say I am no Christian; I say ye are no Christians, and there the account is balanced. Yet I believe all the honest men among you are Christians, in my sense of the word.[12]

Note that “Athanasian divines” refers to those Christians that believe in the concept of the Holy Trinity, considered a central belief of any orthodox or “mainstream” interpretation of Christianity. The “religion” of John Adams did not conform to the conservative Christian worldview of the 18th century, nor does it align with that of the 21st. His beliefs are those, rather, of a Christian Deist, they are extremely heterodox when compared to any conservative definition of Christianity.

But what advantage do authors such as David Barton or Larry Schweikart think that their cause gains by depicting the Founders as Christians with beliefs mirroring those of contemporary conservatives? Could it be the furtherance of an authority/follower mindset? An unquestioning belief in the Bible and the belief in the interconnectedness of religious and civil authorities (church and state) are useful tools in the continuation of the status quo by those in power. These traits are in diametric opposition to those that the revolutionary nature of Enlightenment thought espoused.

In the Deist belief system that was shared by many of the influential founders, questioning and even rejecting authority was encouraged, while science and reason were embraced. Darren Staloff describes Deism thusly:

Deism or “the religion of nature” was a form of rational theology that emerged among “freethinking” Europeans in the 17th and 18th centuries. Deists insisted that religious truth should be subject to the authority of human reason rather than divine revelation. Consequently, they denied that the Bible was the revealed word of God and rejected scripture as a source of religious doctrine. As devotees of natural religion, they rejected all the supernatural elements of Christianity. Miracles, prophecies, and divine portents were all proscribed as residues of superstition, as was the providential view of human history. The doctrines of original sin, the account of creation found in Genesis, and the divinity and resurrection of Christ were similarly castigated as irrational beliefs unworthy of an enlightened age. For Deists God was a benevolent, if distant, creator whose revelation was nature and human reason. Applying reason to nature taught most deists that God organized the world to promote human happiness and our greatest religious duty was to further that end by the practice of morality.[13]

Believing in the unerring authority of religious leaders and religious texts, along with a belief in a God that has predestined you to your appointed place in this world, are very useful tools to control not only religious unrest, but civil unrest as well, especially when you are taught that there is no separation between the religious and the civil authority. By playing into an authoritarian mindset, these beliefs encourage followers to unquestioningly follow. As much as rationalism, whether expressed through Atheism, Deism or any other worldview, rejects such beliefs, it endangers the unquestioned continuation of the current political situation by empowering individuals to take charge of their own destiny. Of course, Deism is not alone in this emancipated mindset, Atheism, and many other belief systems also afford their adherents such freedom of thought. But Deism or Unitarianism was the belief system of many of the prominent founders, and as such, is the belief system that religious conservatives (and those in power that find their beliefs useful) try to argue out of the historical record.

Ethan Allen

“Founding Father” Ethan Allen wrote in Reason: The Only Oracle of Man:

Such people as can be prevailed upon to believe, that their reason is depraved, may easily be led by the nose, and duped into superstition at the pleasure of those, in whom they confide, and there remain from generation to generation; for when they throw away the law of reason, the only one which God gave them to direct them in their speculations and duty, they are exposed to ignorant or insidious teachers, and also to their own irregular passions, and to the folly and enthusiasm of those about them, which nothing but reason can prevent or restrain; nor is it a rational supposition that the commonality of mankind would ever have mistrusted, that their reason was depraved, had they not been told so, and it is whispered about, that the first insinuation of it was from the Priests.[14]

Known for his capture of Fort Ticonderoga and Benedict Arnold, Allen can be counted as one of the most publicly outspoken Deists among the founders.

Benjamin Franklin

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The Abominable Statesman,graphite on paper, Bryan Anthony Moore, 2013. 

Benjamin Franklin, a self avowed Deist, wrote the following letter to Harvard President Ezra Stiles, shortly before his impending death in 1790:

You desire to know something of my Religion. It is the first time I have been questioned upon it: But I do not take your Curiosity amiss, and shall endeavour in a few Words to gratify it. Here is my Creed: I believe in one God, Creator of the Universe. That He governs it by his Providence. That he ought to be worshipped. That the most acceptable Service we can render to him, is doing Good to his other Children. That the Soul of Man is immortal, and will be treated with Justice in another Life respecting its Conduct in this. These I take to be the fundamental Principles of all sound Religion, and I regard them as you do, in whatever Sect I meet with them. As to Jesus of Nazareth, my Opinion of whom you particularly desire, I think the System of Morals and his Religion as he left them to us, the best the World ever saw, or is likely to see; but I apprehend it has received various corrupting Changes, and I have with most of the present Dissenters in England, some Doubts as to his Divinity: tho’ it is a Question I do not dogmatise upon, having never studied it, and think it needless to busy myself with it now, when I expect soon an Opportunity of knowing the Truth with less Trouble [emphasis mine].[15]

In Franklin’s Autobiography, he describes the beliefs he acquired as a young man:

Before I enter upon my public appearance in business, it may be well to let you know the then state of my mind with regard to my principles and morals, that you may see how far those influenced the future events of my life. My parents had early given me religious impressions, and brought me through my childhood piously in the Dissenting way. But I was scarce fifteen when after doubting, by turns, of several points as I found them disputed in the different books I read, I began to doubt of Revelation itself. Some books against Deism fell into my hands; they were said to be the substance of sermons preached at Boyle’s Lectures. It happened that they wrought an effect on me quite contrary to what was intended by them; for the arguments of the Deists, which were quoted to be refuted, appeared to me much stronger than the refutations; in short, I soon became a thorough Deist[emphasis mine].[16]

Thomas Paine

Thomas Paine, known as The Father of the American Revolution, was a pamphleteer whose booklet, Common Sense, ignited the American public in the run up to the American Revolution. He went on to become a figure of significance in the French Revolution though he was later alienated from the American public due to his criticisms of George Washington.

Thomas Paine said of Christianity:

The study of theology, as it stands in the Christian churches, is the study of nothing; it is founded on nothing; it rests on no principles; it produces no authorities; it has no data; it can demonstrate nothing; and it admits of no conclusion” and “The only religion that has not been invented, and that has in it every evidence of divine originality, is pure and simple Deism.[17]

And as simple government avoids us becoming the dupes of fraud, so simple belief protects us from the fraud of priestcraft, which so often runs hand in hand with despotism.[18]

James Madison

2014 Madison's Constitution good scan copyMadison’s Constitution,graphite on coffee stained paper, Bryan Anthony Moore, 2013.

James Madison, the principal author of the Constitution, wrote in a letter to William Bradford, dated April 1, 1774:

Religious bondage shackles and debilitates the mind and unfits it for every noble enterprize [sic], every expanded prospect.[19]

In the letter, A Memorial and Remonstrance, addressed to the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Virginia, Madison wrote:

Experience witnesseth that ecclesiastical establishments, instead of maintaining the purity and efficacy of Religion, have had a contrary operation. During almost fifteen centuries has the legal establishment of Christianity been on trial. What have been its fruits? More or less in all places, pride and indolence in the Clergy, ignorance and servility in the laity, in both, superstition, bigotry and persecution. Enquire of the Teachers of Christianity for the ages in which it appeared in its greatest lustre; those of every sect, point to the ages prior to its incorporation with Civil policy. Propose a restoration of this primitive State in which its Teachers depended on the voluntary rewards of their flocks, many of them predict its downfall. On which Side ought their testimony to have greatest weight, when for or when against their interest?[20]

In the paragraph above, Madison argues that in other nations, the legal establishment of Christianity as a national religion had led to ignorance, servility, bigotry and persecution. He also points out that Christian clergy claiming their faith needs state subsidies for continued existence are not so much making a case for their church, as an argument against it, as a truly beneficial institution should be able to survive on voluntary donations. Later in the letter, Madison summarizes his views in a scathing critique of “ecclesiastical establishments” (state religions):

What influence in fact have ecclesiastical establishments had on Civil Society? In some instances they have been seen to erect a spiritual tyranny on the ruins of the Civil authority; in many instances they have been seen upholding the thrones of political tyranny: in no instance have they been seen the guardians of the liberties of the people. Rulers who wished to subvert the public liberty, may have found an established Clergy convenient auxiliaries. A just Government instituted to secure & perpetuate it needs them not[emphasis mine]. Such a Government will be best supported by protecting every Citizen in the enjoyment of his Religion with the same equal hand which protects his person and his property; by neither invading the equal rights of any Sect, nor suffering any Sect to invade those of another.[21]

Clearly, Madison saw the mixture of church and state, as a threat to the very liberties that the Revolution had been fought to ensure.

James Monroe

James Monroe was mentored by and remained a lifelong friend to the Christian Deist Thomas Jefferson. Monroe also secured Thomas Paine’s release from a French prison and housed Paine in his family residence while Paine was writing his anti-Christian, pro-rational, Deist tract, The Age of Reason, in which Paine argued that the Bible was not divinely inspired and that it was the work of men that were intent on remaining in power. In fact, Paine used a Bible borrowed from the Monroes for reference while writing The Age of Reason. James Monroe, like many of the Founders, was also a Freemason, an organization with strong Deist tendencies.

As the above material demonstrates again and again, the principal authors of both the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution fully endorsed a complete separation of church and state, and the beliefs of the Founding Fathers were much more nuanced, varied and critical than Barton et al would have us believe.

The Treaty of Tripoli

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There were Giants in the Earth, graphite on paper, Bryan Anthony Moore, 2013.

The Treaty of Tripoli is perhaps the most comprehensively damning document for the view that the Founders created a nation based on Christianity. The treaty points out the intention of the first two U.S. Presidents and the early Senate; that the United States ought not to be thought of as a nation founded on the “Christian Religion”. The Treaty of Peace and Friendship between the United States and the Bey and Subjects of Tripoli of Barbary was begun under George Washington’s presidency. It was submitted to the Senate by President John Adams, and received unanimous ratification from the U.S. Senate. It became law on June 10th. 1797.

From Article 11 of the Treaty:

As the government of the United States of America is not in any sense founded on the Christian Religion [emphasis mine], – as it has in itself no character of enmity against the laws, religion or tranquility of Musselmen, – and as the said States never have entered into any war or act of hostility against any Mehomitan nation, it is declared by the parties that no pretext arising from religious opinions shall ever produce an interruption of the harmony existing between the two countries.[22]

This sentiment seems especially timely in the context of our current military involvement in multiple Middle Eastern nations.

The Founders

Moore_Bryan_02

Washington Crossing the Delaware, ink on paper, Bryan Anthony Moore, 2013.

Which Founders do conservatives refer to when they categorize “The Founders” as Christians? Perhaps they refer to the signers of The Declaration of Independence or the Framers of the Constitution. Of the handful of Founders that the average American can name, Jefferson, Adams and Franklin are demonstrably Deists. Madison and Monroe expressed strongly Deist beliefs as well as being proponents of the complete separation of church and state. Washington’s religious beliefs cannot be definitively proven, though he did not believe in taking communion (a supernatural rite), and he used Deistic or Masonic language when discussing “God”, referring to the deity as “Providence” or “The Grand Architect”. Alexander Hamilton was a long time opponent of organized religion, though on his painful, post-duel deathbed, he did ask for communion.[23]

Jefferson variously referred to Jesus’ teachings as the “most perfect” and as “flawed”. John Adams, like Jefferson, considered himself a Christian Deist or Rational Christian. As such, Adams criticized Paine for his unbridled criticisms of Christianity. Though Paine was a Deist, he was not a Christian Deist like Adams. These men were free thinkers, none perhaps believing exactly alike but all feeling empowered to question the very veracity of the Bible or even of religions themselves. There was no monolithic set of beliefs among Deists just as there was no monolith of beliefs among all sects of Christians, and there were shades of thought between the two systems. To try and pigeon-hole the Founders as devout Christians, one must, in order to be honest, admit that these were “Christians” that often rejected the divinity of Christ, the existence of the Trinity, the infallibility of the Bible, revelation, communion, miracles, immaculate conception, etc. For contemporary Christian conservatives to categorize the founders as Christians, and in doing so, associate the founders’ beliefs with those of contemporary religious conservatives, is a wantonly fallacious act.

In attempting to portray the nation’s founding as a conservative Christian enterprise and in attempting to cast doubt on the separation of church and state while violating that separation by introducing religious belief as “fact” in our public school texts, the Tea Party, along with its allies and corporate sponsors (a coalition I call “Founding Faithers”), is seeking to portray conservative Christian churches as a national institution. In the words of Thomas Paine “All national institutions of churches, whether Jewish, Christian or Turkish, appear to me no other than human inventions, set up to terrify and enslave mankind, and monopolize power and profit.”[24]

Thomas Jeffersnowman goodcrop

Thomas Jeffersnowman,graphite on tea stained paper, Bryan Anthony Moore, 2013.

Notes

[4] “Publisher Pulls Controversial Thomas Jefferson Book, Citing Loss Of Confidence.” NPR.org. Accessed February 24, 2015. http://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-way/2012/08/09/158510648/publisher-pulls-controversial-thomas-jefferson-book-citing-loss-of-confidence.

[5] Barton, David, and Glenn Beck. The Jefferson Lies: Exposing the Myths You’ve Always Believed About Thomas Jefferson. Book Club. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 2012.

[6] Barton and Beck, “Thomas Jefferson Wrote His Own Bible and Edited Out the Things He Didn’t Agree With”, 67.

[7] “Founders Online: From Thomas Jefferson to William Short, 4 August 1820.” Accessed January 11, 2015. http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/98-01-02-1438.

[8] Barton and Beck, “Thomas Jefferson Wrote His Own Bible and Edited Out the Things He Didn’t Agree With”, 67.

[9] Founders Online: From Thomas Jefferson to William Short, 13 April 1820.” Accessed January 11, 2015. http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/98-01-02-1218. The full quote is as follows:

But while this Syllabus is meant to place the character of Jesus in it’s true and high light, as no imposter himself, but a great Reformer of the Hebrew code of religion, it is not to be understood that I am with him in all his doctrines. I am a Materialist; he takes the side of spiritualism: he preaches the efficacy of repentance towards forgiveness of sin, I require a counterpoise of good works to redeem it Etc. Etc. it is the innocence of his character, the purity & sublimity of his moral precepts, the eloquence of his inculcations, the beauty of the apologues in which he conveys them, that I so much admire; sometimes indeed needing indulgence to Eastern hyperbolism. My eulogies too may be founded on a postulate which all may not be ready to grant. Among the sayings & discourses imputed to him by his biographers, I find many passages of fine imagination, correct morality, and of the most lovely benevolence: and others again of so much ignorance, so much absurdity, so much untruth; charlatanism, and imposture, as to pronounce it impossible that such contradictions should have proceeded from the same being. I separate therefore the gold from the dross; restore to him the former, & leave the latter to the stupidity of some, and roguery of others of his disciples. Of this band of dupes and impostors, Paul was the great Coryphaeus, and first corrupter of the doctrines of Jesus. These palpable interpolations and falsifications of his doctrines led me to try to sift them apart. I found the work obvious and easy, and that his part composed the most beautiful morsel of morality which has been given to us by man. The Syllabus is therefore of his doctrines, not all of mine. I read them as I do those of other antient and modern moralists, with a mixture of approbation and dissent.

[10] Michael Allen and Larry Schweikart, A Patriot’s History of the United States,

(New York: Penguin, 2004), 71.

[11] “Founders Online: John Adams to Thomas Jefferson, 14 November 1813.” Accessed October 25, 2014. http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/03-06-02-0476.

[12] John Adams to Thomas Jefferson, September 14, 1818, in The Founding Faith Archive, http://www.beliefnet.com/resourcelib/docs/73/Letter_from_John_Admas_to_Thomas_Jefferson_1p.html.

[13] Staloff, Darren. “Deism and the Founding of the United States.” Divining America, TeacherServe©. National Humanities Center. April 26, 2015. <http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/eighteen/ekeyinfo/deism.htm>

[14] Allen, Ethan. Reason, The Only Oracle of Man Or a Compendius System of Natural Religion, 2011. http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/37694.

[15] Franklin, Benjamin, William Temple Franklin, and William Duane. Memoirs of Benjamin Franklin. (Derby & Jackson, 1859) 623.

[16] Franklin, Benjamin, William Temple Franklin, and William Duane. Memoirs of Benjamin Franklin. (Derby & Jackson, 1859), 23-24.

[17] Nicolson, Harold. The Age of Reason (1700-1789). (Indo-European Publishing, 1962), 167-168.

[18] Philp, Mark. “Thomas Paine.” In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, edited by Edward N. Zalta, Winter 2013., 2013. http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2013/entries/paine/.

[19] Gaustad, Edwin S. Faith of Our Fathers: Religion and the New Nation. 1 edition. (San Francisco: Harpercollins, 1987), 37.

[20] Founders Online: Memorial and Remonstrance against Religious Assessments, [ca. ….” Accessed January 10, 2015. http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/01-08-02-0163.

[21] Founders Online: Memorial and Remonstrance against Religious Assessments, [ca. ….” Accessed January 10, 2015. http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/01-08-02-0163.

[22] Treaty of Peace and Friendship between the United States and the Bey and Subjects of Tripoli of Barbary.” Wikisource. Accessed January 11, 2015. http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Tripoli.

[23] Rossano, Matt J. “Alexander Hamilton’s Religion: A Temperate Example For Today’s Fractured World.” Huffington Post, 1–3, 2011. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/matt-j-rossano/hamiltons-religion_b_803677.html.

[24] Paine, Thomas. The Age of Reason, Etc, (1839), 2.

Chapter 2: Case Study – Texas Tea and Textbooks

Inaccuracies in conservative propaganda reach back to the biblical period and through the present regarding climate change and other issues. Within the scope of this paper and my project, I have chosen to address the misinformation that concerns our nation’s “Founding Fathers” of the Revolutionary War period, as it is so central to our national identity.

The state of Texas provides a recent example of this politically motivated indoctrination process. On November twenty-first of 2014, the Texas Department of Education approved new public school textbooks. A list detailing some of the inaccuracies found in these texts, broken into sections by specific book and publisher, as compiled by The Texas Freedom Network, is included below:Covenant7jpg

The Biblical Covenant, quill, bullshit ink and India ink on tea stained paper, Bryan Anthony Moore, 2015. Illustration of McGraw-Hill School Education – United States Government text ““The biblical idea of a covenant, an ancient Jewish term meaning a special kind of agreement between the people and God, influenced the formation of colonial governments and contributed to our constitutional structure.”

McGraw-Hill School Education – United States Government

“The biblical idea of a covenant, an ancient Jewish term meaning a special kind of agreement between the people and God, influenced the formation of colonial governments and contributed to our constitutional structure.”

The American Founders did believe in a social contract, but their version of that contract was derived primarily from modern British political thought, and John Locke’s thought in particular. Since Locke’s version of the social contract was in many ways a repudiation of the biblical covenant view referenced in this passage, this passage provides the student with almost the opposite of the historical truth.[25]

Contrast the above quote about the idea of a “biblical covenant” influencing our constitutional structure with what Jefferson wrote on the subject, in this excerpt of his letter to Samuel Kercheval:

Some men look at constitutions with sanctimonious reverence, and deem them like the arc of the covenant, [emphasis mine]too sacred to be touched.They ascribe to the men of the preceding age a wisdom more than human, and suppose what they did to be beyond amendment. I knew that age well; I belonged to it, and labored with it. It deserved well of its country. It was very like the present, but without the experience of the present; and forty years of experience in government is worth a century of book-reading; and this they would say themselves, were they to rise from the dead. I am certainly not an advocate for frequent and untried changes in laws and constitutions. I think moderate imperfections had better be borne with; because, when once known, we accommodate ourselves to them, and find practical means of correcting their ill effects. But I know also, that laws and institutions must go hand in hand with the progress of the human mind. As that becomes more developed, more enlightened, as new discoveries are made, new truths disclosed, and manners and opinions change with the change of circumstances, institutions must advance also, and keep pace with the times. We might as well require a man to wear still the coat which fitted him when a boy, as civilized society to remain ever under the regimen of their barbarous ancestors [emphasis mine].[26]

Jefferson contrasts the container bearing our secular laws (the Constitution) with the container that bore the religious laws of the Old Testament. The Arc of the Covenant was said to contain the two Tablets of Law, which were inscribed with the Ten Commandments. Jefferson argues that unlike the idea of biblical covenants, the secular laws of the United States were designed to “be touched,” and evolve with changing times and circumstances.

ideas jpegWhere Did the Founders get their Ideas, quill and bullshit ink on tea and coffee stained paper, Bryan Anthony Moore, 2014. Illustration of Perfection Learning text “Where Did the Founders Get Their Ideas?” for Basic Principles of American Government.

Perfection Learning – Basic Principles of American Government

Text has a table entitled “Where did the Founders get their ideas?” The introductory section to the table states: “When the Framers set out to write the Constitution, they drew upon the wisdom of philosophers, historians and economists. Here are a few of the people whose words influenced the content of that remarkable document.” Moses is listed first on this list, followed by John Locke, Charles de Montesquieu, and William Blackstone. The “concept” Moses is alleged to have contributed is that “A nation needs a written code of behavior.” The description of Moses includes the following sentences: “During their years of wandering in the desert of the Sinai, Moses handed down God’s Ten Commandments to the Hebrews. These commandments now form the bedrock on which the Jewish, Muslim, and Christian codes of behavior are based. The full account of Moses’ life can be found in the Bible’s book of Exodus.”

Unlike the contributions of the three other figures mentioned in the table, the contribution of Moses is highly nebulous and contestable. The passage neglects to mention which types of codified behaviors influenced the Framers, and thus makes it difficult to evaluate this claim. The Framers, for instance, were not influenced by the first four Commandments, which deal with matters of religious belief and practice. In fact, notable framers such as James Madison led the battle against government punishment for unorthodox religious belief. Further, stating that “Moses handed down God’s Ten Commandments” is very close to endorsing a religious claim. Stating, for instance, that “Jews and Christians believe that Moses handed down God’s Ten Commandments” would have been more acceptable. Without this qualification, the text seems to endorse the truth of these biblical claims[emphasis mine].[27]

This statement, “Moses handed down God’s Ten Commandments”, in a public school textbook is a complete violation of the First Amendment of the Constitution. Not only is it stating that Moses was a real historical figure, which is no small leap, but it’s also stating that there is a God and he is the G-d of the Judeo-Christian traditions. In this instance, the assertion that Moses as a law-giver, was highly influential to the Framers of our Constitution, is the least of the transgressions. The text continues; “During their years of wandering in the desert of the Sinai, Moses handed down God’s Ten Commandments to the Hebrews. These commandments now form the bedrock on which the Jewish, Muslim, and Christian codes of behavior are based. The full account of Moses’ life can be found in the Bible’s book of Exodus.” therebyendorsing the biblical book of Exodus as an authentic historical narrative. Notice only the “Bible’s book of Exodus” is recommended, if the publishers weren’t unconstitutionally endorsing a specific religion, along with the factual existence of both the Christian God and Moses, then why couldn’t a student look at the book of Exodus in a Torah as well as a Bible?

Houghton Mifflin Harcourt claims Judeo-Christian beliefs were the origin of the Founders’ thoughts on freedom of worship, self-government, and individual responsibility:

Rights and Law 3

Judeo-Christian Influences, quill and bullshit ink on tea stained paper, Bryan Anthony Moore, 2014. Illustration of Houghton Mifflin Harcourt text ““The Framers’ political thinking was influenced by a Judeo-Christian religious heritage, which includes traditions common to both Judaism and Christianity. . . .” for United States Government: Principles in Practice

Houghton Mifflin Harcourt – United States Government: Principles in Practice

Text has a section on “Judeo-Christian Influences” that reads: “The Framers’ political thinking was influenced by a Judeo-Christian religious heritage, which includes traditions common to both Judaism and Christianity. These religions see the law and individual rights as being of divine origin. Moreover, the Framers benefited from the Protestant Reformation, a sixteenth-century Christian reform movement whose leaders developed ideas about individual responsibility, the freedom to worship as one chooses, and self-government.”

This passage gives no example of a law or set of laws in the Bible that influenced the Founders and no example of a Founder or a founding document that was influenced by the “Judeo-Christian” concept of law. The text’s claim that the Reformation was a source of the Founders’ views on ­individual responsibility omits several important pieces of information. Major figures in the Protestant Reformation such as Martin Luther and John Calvin may have supported freedom of worship for their own views, but they often did not support freedom of worship for many competing religious views. Similarly, the views of major Reformation figures, including Luther and Calvin, about self-government were far more limited than, and had little in common with, the views of the American Founders about self-government.

Finally, the paragraph could leave students with a misleading impression about the Founders’ religious views. The passage’s claim that Judaism and Christianity stresses that individual rights are of “divine origin” and that these views influenced all of the Founders suggests that all of the Founders believed that this biblical God was the source of natural rights. Many Founders did, of course, believe in the biblical God. Other Founders, though, were influenced by Deism, and their conception of God departed in significant ways from the biblical God.[28]

Some of the Founders may have had strong religious convictions that informed their political beliefs. However, others strongly believed that the inspiration for individual rights and freedoms had come from English laws that had origins in continental Europe, and that were inherited from Pagan Anglo-Saxon migrants, or from the Greek and Pre-Christian Roman democracies. Some of the Founders even implied that it was the Christian Norman invaders that first wrested these liberties from their ancient English forebears. In a letter to Major John Cartwright, dated June 5th, 1824, Jefferson wrote:

A perpetual claim was kept up by the nation [England] by their perpetual demand of a restoration of their Saxon laws; which shews they were never relinquished by the will of the nation. In the pullings and haulings for these antient rights between the nation and it’s kings of the races of Plantagenets, Tudors & Stuarts, there was sometimes gain, and sometimes loss, until the final reconquest of their rights from the Stuarts[emphasis mine]. The destitution and expulsion of this race broke the thread of pretended inheritance, extinguished all regal usurpations, and the nation re-entered into all it’s rights; and altho’ in their bill of rights they specifically reclaimed some only, yet the omission of the others was no renunciation of the right to assume their exercise also, whenever occasions should occur the new king received no rights or powers but those expressly granted to him. It has ever appeared to me that the difference between the whig and tory of England is, that the whig deduces his rights from the A-Saxon source, and the tory from the Norman. . . . I was glad to find in your book a formal contradiction, at length, of the judiciary usurpation of legislative powers; for such the judges have usurped in their repeated decisions, that Christianity is a part of the common law. The proof of the contrary, which you have adduced, is incontrovertible; to wit, that the common law existed while the Anglo-Saxons were yet Pagans, at a time when they had never yet heard the name of Christ pronounced, or knew that such a character had ever existed[emphasis mine].[29]

Jefferson clearly thought that the Bill of Rights had Anglo-Saxon precedents from England’s own myth-story; precedents that had merely re-surfaced in 1215, when Englishmen achieved, as Jefferson states in the letter above, “the final reconquest of their rights from the Stuarts.” This “reconquest” refers to the signing of the Magna Charta, an incredibly important document in the development of Western democracies. But Pearson Education’s textbook, quoted below, emphasizes the influence of the Ten Commandments, a short list of religious do’s and don’ts, rather than that of the Magna Carta, which provided for church rights, protection from unlawful imprisonment, a speedy trial by a jury of one’s peers, reasonable punishment for trivial crimes, protection of property, limited taxes, and other rights and protections to citizens.[30]

Pearson Education – Magruder’s American Government

Text includes a “Biography of Moses,” which states: “Moses was a lawgiver and a great leader. Like the founders of the United States, he helped establish a legal system to govern his people. The Ten Commandments have been a guide and basis for many legal and moral systems throughout the world[emphasis mine].” The annotation to the biography states: “Moses helped establish a legal system, including the Ten Commandments, to govern his people. Similarly, the founders of the United States wrote the Constitution and established a system of laws to govern Americans. They were also part of a tradition that was familiar with the Ten Commandments as a guide for moral behavior.”

The passage gives an exaggerated impression to students about the influence of and relationship between Moses and the Founders. The legal system that Moses founded had theocratic elements, which made it very different from the republican system of law the Founders established. Similarly, the text neglects to mention that the Founders were reacting against several of the crucial elements of the moral, legal, and political tradition associated with Moses and the Ten Commandments.[31]

John Adams wrote his opinions on the origins of American and English political thought in A Defence of the Constitutions of Government of the United States of America. Contrast these opinions in the excerpt below, with Pearson Education’s claim (above) of a biblical basis:

The Teutonic institutions, described by Cæsar and Tacitus, are the most memorable experiment merely political, ever yet made in human affairs. They have spread all over Europe, and have lasted eighteen hundred years. They afford the strongest argument that can be imagined in support of the point aimed at in these letters. Nothing ought to have more weight with America, to determine her judgment against mixing the authority of the one, the few, and the many, confusedly in one assembly, than the wide-spread miseries and final slavery of almost all mankind, in consequence of such an ignorant policy in the ancient Germans. What is the ingredient which in England has preserved the democratical authority? The balance, and that only. The English have, in reality, blended together the feudal institutions with those of the Greeks and Romans; and out of all have made that noble composition, which avoids the inconveniences, and retains the advantages, of both. The institutions now made in America will never wear wholly out for thousands of years: it is of the last importance then that they should begin right; if they set out wrong, they will never be able to return, unless it be by accident, to the right path. After having known the history of Europe, and of England in particular, it would be the height of folly to go back to the institutions of Woden and of Thor, as they are advised to do: if they had been counselled to adopt a simple monarchy at once, it would have been less mysterious. Robertson, Hume, and Gibbon have given such admirable accounts of the feudal institutions, and their consequences, that it would have been more discreet to have referred to them, perhaps, without saying any thing more upon the subject. To collect together the legislation of the Indians, would take up much room, but would be well worth the pains. The sovereignty is in the nation, it is true, but the three powers are strong in every tribe; and their royal and aristocratical dignities are much more generally hereditary, from the popular partiality to particular families, and the superstitious opinion that such are favourites of the God of War, than the late writers upon this subject have allowed.[32]

In the above quote, Adams cites Teutonic (Germanic), Roman, and Greek institutions of governance as the fonts from which the best of English political ideas (and by extension Anglo-American ideas) had sprang. He goes on to infer that American Indians (probably referring to the Iroquois Confederacy), had made some important contributions to American political thought. His reference to the three powers probably refers to a judicial, legislative and executive branch, but may be in reference to their formation of a bicameral legislature with a third “house” (the Onondaga tribe) acting much like an executive branch in breaking ties and possessing the power of veto.[33] Of course, Adams, ever the aristocrat, made sure to mention how valuable the hereditary component of the Iroquois polity was (though that was a misrepresentation). The Ten Commandments are conspicuously absent in both the liberal Jefferson’s, and conservative Adams’ descriptions of our political roots.

This textbook then goes on to claim that the roots of our democracy can be found in the Old Testament monarchy of Solomon in addition to the theocratic leadership of Moses:

treetree

The Roots of Democracy, ink on tea stained paper, Bryan Anthony Moore, 2015. Illustration forPearson Education’s – Magruder’s American Governmenttext: “The roots of democratic government in today’s world – including government in the United States – lie deep in human history. They reach back most particularly to ancient Greece and Rome, and include elements related to Judeo-Christian philosophy, dating back thousands of years to Old Testament texts and Biblical figures such as Moses and Solomon.” 

Pearson Education – Magruder’s American Government

The text states: “The roots of democratic government in today’s world – including government in the United States – lie deep in human history. They reach back most particularly to ancient Greece and Rome, and include elements related to Judeo-Christian philosophy, dating back thousands of years to Old Testament texts and Biblical figures such as Moses and Solomon.”

The forms of government mentioned in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) are theocracy and monarchy. Prominent figures in the Hebrew Bible are occasionally critical of monarchy including the prophets Samuel and Gideon, or of the behavior of particular kings as in the case of the prophet Nathan’s criticism of King David. The Israelites also sometimes placed limits on their kings’ sovereignty (see, for instance, 1 Kings 12). Still, those critical of monarchy or monarchs did not advocate democracy as an alternative, and the limited monarchy occasionally practiced in ancient Israel seems to bear little resemblance to American democracy. Even if it is accurate that government in the Hebrew Bible had democratic features, the text never tells us how these democratic features directly influenced the Founders. It is similarly difficult to make sense of the text’s claim that Moses or Solomon governed in a democratic way.[34]

Texas’ new history books also cite Jesus as the inspiration for the idea of equality before the law; stating that it developed from his teachings that all were equal in the eyes of God. The biblical Jesus spoke very little about civil law, but the Magna Charta proclaims: “TO ALL FREE MEN OF OUR KINGDOM we have also granted, for us and our heirs for ever, all the liberties written out below, to have and to keep for them and their heirs, of us and our heirs:”[35]  This is stated immediately before a long list of rights and protections that were to be afforded to freemen, mostly of land holding status, with a select few rights included for women and children. Our Founders’ initial extension of rights only to free, land-owning, white males, follows much more logically from this document, than from anything that Jesus said.

One of the stipulations contained within the Magna Charta states: “To no one will we sell, to no one deny or delay right or justice,”[36] this is truly a statement of “equality before the law.”

IMG_20150611_125048

Equality Before the Law, terra-cotta tea caddy, Bryan Anthony Moore, 2015. Created to depict Houghton Mifflin Harcourt – World Historytext: “Because one of Jesus’s basic principles was the equality of all people in the eyes of God, equality before the law became a central belief within the Judeo-Christian tradition.”

Houghton Mifflin Harcourt – World History

The text states: “Because one of Jesus’s basic principles was the equality of all people in the eyes of God, equality before the law became a central belief within the Judeo-Christian tradition.”

There are two problems with this claim. The first concerns the presentation: the authors’ wording suggests that belief in equality of all people before God originated with Jesus. In fact, it arguably dates back to Jewish teachings such as the belief that all people have a single progenitor (Gen. 1-2), and the assertion in Leviticus that there is one law for citizen and stranger alike (Lev. 24:22). Second, the “Because…” language suggests that there is a straightforward chain of causation between, on the one hand, the Jewish and Christian belief in equality before God’s law and, on the other, the belief in equality before human law. If there is such causation, it is by no means straightforward. While the ancient Israelite teaching of equality of all people before God’s law may well have influenced our legal tradition, such influence remains tenuous and far from clear, and this text does not offer the necessary clarification or explanation.[37]

In the schoolbooks quoted above, we repeatedly see unsubstantiated references to the Judeo-Christian “origins” of our Founding documents, but the story does not end there. Some of the books take the “Christian nation” argument to another level, implying that our founding documents never expressly forbade the mingling of religion with government.

myth

The Myth of Separation of Church and State, terra-cotta teapot, Bryan Anthony Moore, 2015. Illustration for McGraw-Hill School Education’s United States Government text: “Thomas Jefferson once referred to the establishment clause as a ‘wall of separation between church and state.’ That phrase is not used in the Constitution, however.” 

McGraw-Hill School Education – United States Government

The text states: “Thomas Jefferson once referred to the establishment clause as a ‘wall of separation between church and state.’ That phrase is not used in the Constitution, however.”

The statement is factually correct, but it could give students the inaccurate impression that Jefferson’s view was personal and lacked significant connection to the First Amendment. The text neglects to mention, for instance, the significant support for the separationist position shared by both Jefferson and James Madison, the Founder with the greatest influence on the drafting of the First Amendment’s religion clauses[emphasis mine]. The text also neglects to mention reference to Jefferson’s “wall” metaphor in important Supreme Court establishment clause cases, such as Justice Hugo Black’s decision in Everson v. Board of Education, the first Supreme Court case to apply the establishment clause to the states and local government.[38]

In the Detatched Memoranda, James Madison, the principal author of The First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, wrote: “Strongly guarded . . . is the separation between religion and government in the Constitution of the United States [emphasis mine].”[39]  McGraw Hill’s brazen manipulation of history, achieved through glaring omissions, amounts to a publically funded brainwashing of our youth. These schoolbooks have been “cooked” to such an extent that they often imply the exact opposite of verifiable facts. Perfection Learning’s “church and state” offerings are similar:

Perfection Learning – Basic Principles of American Government

This product does not mention Thomas Jefferson’s use of the phrase “wall of separation between church and state” at all. The text also includes an unbalanced discussion of the background to the Supreme Court’s seminal ruling against school prayer in Engel v. Vitale. The discussion has four paragraphs that are devoted primarily to examining the logic of the rulings of lower, state courts in favor of school prayer. These paragraphs mention that a state court decision notes that “neither the Constitution nor its writers discussed the use of prayer in public schools” and that the judges in these cases “noted that the prayer did not fall into the same category as Bible readings or religious instruction in public schools.”

The four-paragraph discussion of lower courts’ logic in favor of school prayer is followed by only a single paragraph about the Supreme Court’s majority opinion striking down school prayer, which contains little discussion of the logic of that opinion.[40]

These newly approved (as of November, 2014) Texas schoolbooks are particularly problematic. Due to the large number of students in the nation’s second most populous state, Texas’ textbooks have a large impact on how manufacturers write their texts, and these texts are often used in states outside of Texas. “Because Texas’ market is so large, textbooks published to meet its standards can affect those sold in other states,” said Will Weisert, of the Huffington Post.[41]

According to Professor Keith Erekson, director of the Center for History Teaching and Learning at the University of Texas at El Paso “he’s seen estimates that the proportion of social studies textbooks sold containing the basic Texas-approved narrative range from about half to 80 percent [emphasis mine].”[42]

Although propaganda about our Founders (and those of other nations) has long been a tool of political ideologies, this latest instance of textbook manipulation is so fantastic in its assertions and so wide ranging in its reach that it is particularly disturbing.

As can be clearly seen in the gross inaccuracies of the new Texas public school texts, American history, as it is being taught in many schools, is a propaganda laden, mythological construct, comprised of half-truths, omissions, and outright falsehoods. Rather than providing a framework of ideas with which students can critically engage, taxpayer-funded textbooks are being used as ideological weapons[43]  in a culture war that seeks to characterize the American experiment as a fundamentally Christian, politically conservative narrative; created with ideas derived from Protestantism, Jesus Christ, Solomon, and Moses.

This propaganda is meant to further a meek, “follow the leader” mindset rather than fostering critical thought and the questioning of authority; characteristics that were so crucial to the empowering Enlightenment ideals that informed the American Revolution.

As Maria Blake noted in a Mother Jones article on September 17, 2014:

The current crop of textbooks were written to comply with a set of standards that the Texas State Board of Education, then controlled by a group of ultra-conservatives, crafted in 2010 with input from a cadre of hand-picked “experts.” Among them were conservative culture warriors such as David Barton, a self-styled historian with deep ties to the Republican Party who argues that the principle of church-state separation is a myth. As a result, the books are required to glorify free-market capitalism, promote America’s Christian heritage, and pay tribute to conservative icons, such as Newt Gingrich and Phyllis Schlafly.[44]

According to a chart[45] on the Texas Freedom Network website, thirty three states select their Board of Education members through appointment, five have a combination of elected and appointed members, six elect their members through non-partisan elections, and two have no boards, electing a non-partisan superintendent of public instruction instead. The remaining ten states, including Texas, select their board members through partisan elections.

This has left these states more vulnerable to partisan political ideology invading the educational process with the unlimited financial backing of special interest groups going to the candidates that best serve those interests.

In an article for the New York Review of Books, writer Gail Collins describes the results of these systemic problems, i.e., the 2010 textbook curriculum standards that resulted in the current crop of fictional history books:

When it comes to meddling with school textbooks, Texas is both similar to other states and totally different. It’s hardly the only one that likes to fiddle around with the material its kids study in class[emphasis mine]. The difference is due to size — 4.8 million textbook-reading schoolchildren as of 2011 — and the peculiarities of its system of government, in which the State Board of Education is selected in elections that are practically devoid of voters, and wealthy donors can chip in unlimited amounts of money to help their favorites win[emphasis mine].

The Texas State Board of Education, which approves textbooks, curriculum standards, and supplemental materials for the public schools, has fifteen members from fifteen districts whose boundaries don’t conform to congressional districts, or really anything whatsoever. They run in staggered elections that are frequently held in off years, when always-low Texas turnout is particularly abysmal. The advantage tends to go to candidates with passionate, if narrow, bands of supporters, particularly if those bands have rich backers.[46]

As Collins states above, “wealthy donors can chip in unlimited amounts of money to help their favorites win.” In this way, an institution ostensibly set up to provide a service for the benefit of the public, or what the Constitution calls “the general welfare”, is violated by the private interests of corporations and wealthy individuals. Althusser describes this situation (as originally conceived by Gramsci) thusly:

The distinction between the public and the private is a distinction internal to bourgeois law, and valid in the (subordinate) domains in which bourgeois law exercises its “authority”. The domain of the State escapes it because the latter is “above the law”: the State, which is the State of the ruling class, is neither public nor private; on the contrary, it is the precondition for any distinction between public and private.[47]

Collins continues:

Some extremely rich Texans have gotten into the board of education election game, putting their money at the disposal of conservative populists. . . . In 2010, the board launched itself into the . . . contentious sea of the social studies curriculum, and the teacher-dominated team tasked with writing the standards was advised by a panel of “experts,” one of whom was a member of the Minutemen militia. Another had argued that only white people were responsible for advancing civil rights for minorities in America, since “only majorities can expand political rights in America’s constitutional society.” “The way I evaluate history textbooks is first I see how they cover Christianity and Israel,” McLeroy told Washington Monthly. “Then I see how they treat Ronald Reagan—he needs to get credit for saving the world from communism and for the good economy over the last twenty years because he lowered taxes[emphasis mine].

The social studies curriculum was perhaps the last hurrah for the extreme agenda that Don McLeroy, the anti-evolution dentist, had championed. When the discussions began, he could frequently rally a majority on the fifteen-member panel [the Texas State Board of Education], with the consistent support of people like Cynthia Dunbar, who once wrote that sending children to public schools was like “throwing them into the enemy’s flames, even as the children of Israel threw their children to Moloch.”(She also once called Barack Obama a terrorist sympathizer.) In 2011, Dunbar announced her retirement; she had been commuting between Texas and Virginia, where she taught at Jerry Falwell’s[emphasis mine] Liberty University School of Law. After McLeroy himself lost a Republican primary to a candidate who believes in evolution, Barbara Cargill, his successor as board chair, expressed concern that she was left with only “six true conservative Christians on the board[emphasis mine].”[48]

At a minimum, academic qualifications in an appropriate field should be set for the level of education of a person seeking a position on any state board of education. Expert level credentials should also be required of anyone acting as an advisor in constructing educational standards.

State education board memberships should be nonpartisan positions, elected in nonpartisan elections. A high level of education and past work experience in the appropriate field should be the determining qualifications rather than ideological allegiances.

This culture war manipulation of our children’s education also points to the need for campaign finance reform at the state level as well as the federal.

Rather than having curriculum standards decided by boards sponsored by wealthy individuals and corporate donors, perhaps the public should have a say in their children’s education. Maybe the citizens of Texas have a better idea of how to improve curriculum standards and textbook requirements. In a 2010 statewide poll conducted by Greenberg Quinlan Rosner research it was found that statewide:

Texas voters believe the public school curriculum should be set by teachers and scholars, not politicians. Nearly three-quarters of Texas voters say that teachers and academic scholars should be responsible for writing curriculum standards and textbook requirements for Texas’ public schools. Only 19 percent prefer that an elected state board make curriculum decisions.[49]

Giving power to the schoolteachers who interact with our children and to the scholars that have demonstrated expertise through their education and experience is what the public wants and what the impartial education of our children requires. Devolving these responsibilities to more people in more schools is after all, the democratic thing to do.

As stated by historian Ray Raphael:

Now more than ever reshaping the public record is consciously conceived and politically motivated . . . Contrived stories, self serving interpretations of public events are not just quaint or incidental—they are anathema to the functioning of democracy, which depends on the free flow of accurate and often complex information . . . If and when we do decide to tell more honest stories, we must do so in ways that invite discussion and critique. Contentious debate is more appropriate to the functioning of a democratic society than rote recitation. In Revolutionary times, common folk deliberated the crucial questions of the day in every tavern and meetinghouse in the land. Today, the way we tell history should reflect this rich, rambunctious heritage.

Whoever controls the narrative controls history. This is a powerful message. Those who ignore it will remain blind to the manipulation of others, but those who get it, like the people of the American Revolution, will be able to challenge abusive authority and take control of their destinies.[50]

Notes

[25] Dr. Edward Countryman. “Writing to the Standards: Reviews of Proposed Social Studies Textbooks for Texas Public Schools.” Www.tfn.org, n.d. http://www.tfn.org/site/DocServer/FINAL_executivesummary.pdf?docID=4625.

[26] “Jefferson to Kercheval, Jul. 12, 1816.” Accessed April 4, 2015. http://www.constitution.org/tj/ltr/1816/ltr_18160712_kercheval.html.

[27] Dr. Edward Countryman. “Writing to the Standards: Reviews of Proposed Social Studies Textbooks for Texas Public Schools.” Www.tfn.org, n.d. http://www.tfn.org/site/DocServer/FINAL_executivesummary.pdf?docID=4625.

[28] Dr. Edward Countryman. “Writing to the Standards: Reviews of Proposed Social Studies Textbooks for Texas Public Schools.” Www.tfn.org, n.d. http://www.tfn.org/site/DocServer/FINAL_executivesummary.pdf?docID=4625.

[29] “Founders Online: From Thomas Jefferson to John Cartwright, 5 June 1824.” Accessed April 5, 2015. http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/98-01-02-4313.

[30] “English Translation of Magna Carta.” The British Library. Accessed April 5, 2015. http://www.bl.uk/magna-carta/articles/magna-carta-english-translation.

[31] Dr. Edward Countryman. “Writing to the Standards: Reviews of Proposed Social Studies Textbooks for Texas Public Schools.” Www.tfn.org, n.d. http://www.tfn.org/site/DocServer/FINAL_executivesummary.pdf?docID=4625.

[32] Adams, John. The Political Writings of John Adams. (Regnery Publishing, 2001), 124-125.

[33] “The Iroquois Tribes.” American HistoryFrom Pre-Columbian to the New Millennium. Acessed April 26th, 2015.

http://www.ushistory.org/us/1d.asp

[34] Dr. Edward Countryman. “Writing to the Standards: Reviews of Proposed Social Studies Textbooks for Texas Public Schools.” Www.tfn.org, n.d. http://www.tfn.org/site/DocServer/FINAL_executivesummary.pdf?docID=4625.

[35] “English Translation of Magna Carta.” The British Library. Accessed April 5, 2015. http://www.bl.uk/magna-carta/articles/magna-carta-english-translation.

[36] “English Translation of Magna Carta.” The British Library. Accessed April 5, 2015. http://www.bl.uk/magna-carta/articles/magna-carta-english-translation.

[37] Dr. Edward Countryman. “Writing to the Standards: Reviews of Proposed Social Studies Textbooks for Texas Public Schools.” Www.tfn.org, n.d. http://www.tfn.org/site/DocServer/FINAL_executivesummary.pdf?docID=4625.

[38] Dr. Edward Countryman. “Writing to the Standards: Reviews of Proposed Social Studies Textbooks for Texas Public Schools.” Www.tfn.org, n.d. http://www.tfn.org/site/DocServer/FINAL_executivesummary.pdf?docID=4625.

[39] Founders Online: Detatched Memoranda, Ca. 31 January 1820.” Accessed January 10, 2015. http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/04-01-02-0549. Full quote follows: Strongly guarded as is the separation between Religion & Govt. in the Constitution of the United States, the danger of encroachment by Ecclesiastical Bodies, may be illustrated by precidents [sic] already furnished in their short history.

[40] Dr. Edward Countryman. “Writing to the Standards: Reviews of Proposed Social Studies Textbooks for Texas Public Schools.” Www.tfn.org, n.d. http://www.tfn.org/site/DocServer/FINAL_executivesummary.pdf?docID=4625.

[41] Texas Textbooks Approved Amid Controversy.” Huffington Post, 11–21, 2014. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/11/21/texas-textbooks-approved_n_6200968.html.

[42] Collins, Gail. “How Texas Inflicts Bad Textbooks on Us.” The New York Review of Books, June 21, 2012. http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2012/jun/21/how-texas-inflicts-bad-textbooks-on-us/.

[43] These are what Althusser calls “Ideological State Apparatuses or ISA’s.” Althusser, Louis. On Ideology. Translated by Ben Brewster. London ; New York: Verso, 2008.

[44] “Texas’ New Public School Textbooks Promote Climate Change Denial and Downplay Segregation.” Mother Jones. Accessed February 23, 2015. http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2014/09/texas-textbooks-promote-climate-change-denial-downplay-segregation.

[45] “RRReport2008web.pdf.” Accessed January 13, 2015. http://www.tfn.org/site/DocServer/RRReport2008web.pdf?docID=501.

[46] Collins, Gail. “How Texas Inflicts Bad Textbooks on Us.” The New York Review of Books, June 21, 2012. http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2012/jun/21/how-texas-inflicts-bad-textbooks-on-us/.

[47] Althusser, Louis. On Ideology. Translated by Ben Brewster. London ; New York: Verso, 2008.

[48] Collins, Gail. “How Texas Inflicts Bad Textbooks on Us.” The New York Review of Books, June 21, 2012. http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2012/jun/21/how-texas-inflicts-bad-textbooks-on-us/.

[49] “Culture Wars in the Classroom: Texas Voters Call for a Ceasefire.” Greenberg Quinlan Rosner Research. Accessed January 13, 2015. http://www.gqrr.com/articles/2010/07/13/culture-wars-in-the-classroom-texas-voters-call-for-a-ceasefire.

[50] Raphael, Ray. Founding Myths: Stories That Hide Our Patriotic Past. Tenth Anniversary Edition. New Press, The, 2014), 276-77.

Chapter 3: From Cartoons to Culture Jamming – The Artist as Subversive

Thomas Nast

nast church and state

Church and State, woodblock print, Thomas Nast, 1870. http://images.fineartamerica.com/images-medium-large/churchstate-cartoon-1870-granger.jpg

As a child I was strongly impacted by the precision, humor and style of Thomas Nast’s cartoons in my history textbooks. From his engravings, I learned to appreciate the captivating beauty of skilled line drawings and the limitless potential of speaking truth to power through images.

A German immigrant to the United States, Nast created the images that became the blueprint for the way that iconic figures such as Uncle Sam and Santa Claus have been depicted ever since. Nast seemed to capture the primal or animalistic natures of his subjects, depicting Boss Tweed variously as a vulture or as a man with a moneybag for a head. Nast’s career of exposing private and government corruption (muckraking) and championing the common people against the interests of a corrupt elite illustrated the power of visual communication. President Grant was reported to have attributed his election in 1868 to the “sword of Sheridan and the pencil of Nast.” Lincoln was reported to have said, “Thomas Nast has been our best recruiting sergeant.”[51]

Thomas Nast created the republican elephant, popularized the democratic donkey and swayed public opinion time after time through the strength of his images. His scathing critique of the KKK, racial segregation, slavery, the plight of the Chinese American and the mistreatment of Native Americans were very progressive in the nineteenth century, although his derogatory depictions of Irish Catholics, and Catholicism in general, were very much in step with the xenophobic and anti-papist attitudes of his time.[52]

Nast, raised a Catholic, left the church. Like many nineteenth century Americans, Nast believed that fealty to the pope and the Catholic Church threatened American sovereignty. Nast saw Catholic school requests for government school funds as a threat to public or “common” schools[53] and saw parochial schools as instruments of theocracy.

The contemporary conservative narrative is a continuation of the imperialist mythology of the 1800s that came to supersede the revolutionary spirit of our nation’s origins. Today, artists continue to use art and the image to subvert this conservative ideology. I have been researching those that do so through the imitation or hijacking of its’ means of transmission.

American_river_Ganges_crop

The American River Ganges, woodblock print, Thomas Nast,1871.http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:American_river_Ganges_crop.jpg.

Hans Haacke

reagan

Homage to Marcel Broodthaers, painting in oil, Hans Haacke, 1982. http://www.frieze.com/uploads/images/back/p2103_haacke.jpg.

Hans Haacke is an artist critical of social and political/governmental systems. In his work, Painting in Oil, Homage to Marcel Broodthaers, Haacke addressed American imperialism in Europe.

In 1982, at the Documenta 7 exhibition, Haacke exhibited a very large work that included oil portraits of Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher in 19th-century style, facing on the opposite wall a gigantic photograph of the demonstration against nuclear arms held earlier that year—the largest demonstration in Germany since the end of the Second World War. The clear implication, supported by Haacke’s remarks, was that these two figures were attempting to roll back their respective nations to the socially and politically regressive, laissez-faire, and imperialist policies of the 19th century [emphasis mine].[54] Similarly, I feel that the Tea Party, their conservative allies and their corporate sponsors are currently attempting to move the United States back to the nationalism, imperialism, Social Darwinism and laissez-faire capitalism of the 19th century. To quote Historian Ray Raphael:

Stories of national creation reflect the romantic individualism of the nineteenth century, and they sell our country short. They are strangely out-of-sync with both the communitarian ideals of Revolutionary America and the democratic values of today. The image of a perfect America in a mythic past hides our Revolutionary roots, and this we do not need. The notion of popular sovereignty, by contrast, is more appropriate for the twenty-first century. People can seize control of their own political destinies — the American Revolution serves as a case in point, a model for all time. “Government has now devolved upon the people,” wrote one disgruntled Tory in 1774, “and they seem to be for using it.” That’s a story we do not have to conjure, and what an epic it is.[55]

There is a wide chasm between the empowering ideals of the founding of our nation, and the carefully crafted narrative that the wealthy have employed since the nineteenth century in order to solidify the power of the few over that of the many.

Some contemporary artists subvert the means of propaganda distribution to their own ends as a way of criticizing the corporate/state messages omnipresent in the mass media. This practice was dubbed “culture jamming” by the experimental noise rock group Negativland.

Oxford Dictionaries defines culture jamming as, “the practice of criticizing and subverting advertising and consumerism in the mass media, by methods such as producing advertisements parodying those of global brands.”[56]

On the album JamCon ’84, in which Negativland first used this term that others have since employed, Negativland states,

As awareness of how the media environment we occupy affects and directs our inner life . . . some resist. The skillfully reworked billboard . . . directs the public viewer to a consideration of the original corporate strategy. The studio for the cultural jammer is the world at large.[57]

Packard Jennings

packard

Bible Sticker, decals, Packard Jennings, 2005. http://packardjennings.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/bible.jpg.

Jennings is a contemporary artist that employs the practice of culture jamming in his pamphlets, sculptures and prints. As described on his website packardjennings.com, his work Bible Stickers, 2005, was based on stickers that were officially placed inside Georgia public school biology textbooks that read:

Evolution is a theory, not a fact, regarding the origin of living things. It should be read with an open mind and critically considered.

Jennings created his own stickers that were given away with the following instructions:

Keep this sticker in your wallet. When you stay in a motel, adhere your sticker to the inside jacket of the Bible.

The text of the stickers read:

This Bible Contains material on creationism. Creationism is a parable, not a fact, regarding the origin of living things. This material was written by normal men almost two thousand years ago and should be approached with an open mind and critically considered.[58]

I feel a great deal of affinity to this project with it’s attempt at striking back at the conservative attempt to dumb-down our children’s textbooks by rolling back our Constitutional right to a separation of church and state. This project illustrates how artists can hijack the means and tactics of (mis)information dispersal employed not only by corporations but by the church and state as well.

The Yes Men

yesmen

New York TimesSpecial Edition, newsprint, The Yes Men, 2009. http://www.nataliejohns.com/special-projects/.

The Yes Men are an activist group composed of Jacques Servin and Igor Vamos and their network of supporters. They typically pull off politically motivated pranks such as impersonating corporate CEO’s, spokesmen or websites in a practice they’ve called “identity correction”.

Accompanying a video titled “Special Edition” New York Post, submitted by The Yes Men to the website Vimeo, The Yes Men describe the Special Edition that was distributed on September 21, 2009:

Early this morning, nearly a million New Yorkers were stunned by the appearance of a “special edition” New York Post blaring headlines that their city could face deadly heat waves, extreme flooding, and other lethal effects of global warming within the next few decades. The most alarming thing about it: the news came from an official City report.

Distributed by over 2000 volunteers throughout New York City, the paper has been created by The Yes Men and a coalition of activists as a wake-up call to action on climate change. It appears one day before a UN summit where Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon will push 100 world leaders to make serious commitments to reduce carbon emissions in the lead-up to the Copenhagen climate conference in December. Ban has said that the world has “less than 10 years to halt (the) global rise in greenhouse gas emissions if we are to avoid catastrophic consequences for people and the planet,” adding that Copenhagen is a “once-in-a-generation opportunity.”

Although the 32-page New York Post is a fake, everything in it is 100% true, with all facts carefully checked by a team of editors and climate change experts.

“This could be, and should be, a real New York Post,” said Andy Bichlbaum of the Yes Men. “Climate change is the biggest threat civilization has ever faced, and it should be in the headlines of every paper, every day until we solve the problem.”[59]

This work dealt with the manipulation of corporate print media, which often carries corporate or state misinformation, by replacing it with a subversive proxy. The Yes Men’s “Special Edition” demonstrated the artistic potential available in hijacking corporate information vehicles to publicly disseminate data, in this case, illuminating glaring governmental neglect and endangerment.

Notes

[51] Murrell, William, and N. P. Chipman. 1936. “Nast, Gladiator of the Political Pencil.” The American Scholar 5 (4): 472–85.

[52] Keller, Morton. The Art and Politics of Thomas Nast. London: (Oxford University Press, 1975), 159-162.

[53] “‘The American River Ganges’ – 30 September, 1871.” Illustrating Chinese Exclusion. Accessed April 27, 2015. http://thomasnastcartoons.com/irish-catholic-cartoons/the-american-river-ganges-1871/.

[54] “Slashart 17 | Doubleslashart.” Accessed February 23, 2015.http://doubleslashart.blogspot.com/2012/03/slashart-17.html.

[55] Raphael, Ray. (Founding Myths: Stories That Hide Our Patriotic Past. Tenth Anniversary Edition. New Press, The, 2014), 6-7.

 [56] “http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/culture-jamming.” Accessed April 25, 2014.

[57] “The Merry Pranksters And the Art of the Hoax.” The New York Times, December 23, 1990, sec. Arts. http://www.nytimes.com/1990/12/23/arts/the-merry-pranksters-and-the-art-of-the-hoax.html.

[58] “Bible Sticker ‹ Packardjennings.com.” Accessed January 11, 2015. http://packardjennings.com/?page_id=791.

[59]“SPECIAL EDITION” NEW YORK POST, 2009. https://vimeo.com/6676567.

Chapter 4: Project – National Mythstory/Texas Tea

In this project, I combine my interest in artwork that speaks to power, with my research in the conservative myth-history of America, illustrating the inaccuracies found in Texas’ 2014 schoolbooks, which include assertions such as:

  1. The Judeo-Christian idea of a covenant between man and God influenced our Constitutional structure.
  2. Moses and The Ten Commandments were influential to our Founders in creating a written code of behavior.
  3. God handed down Moses’ Ten Commandments (stated as a factual occurrence) with the Bible referenced as an accurate historical document.
  4. The roots of democratic government can be found in the philosophy of Old Testament figures such as Solomon and Moses.
  5. The governmental concept of the equality of all people before the law originated with Jesus.
  6. The Protestant Reformation was the origin of our Founder’s ideas concerning freedom of religion, self-government and individual responsibility.
  7. The separation of church and state was not among the founding principles of our government.

In depicting the outlandish claims made in the 2014 Texas schoolbooks, I am manipulating this media by hijacking the text and creating my own illuminating images. By “illuminating”, I refer to both the practice of illustrating, as the word was used in the context of medieval manuscripts, as well as the spotlighting or clarifying of information.

In much the same way that those editing history to their liking try to present their work as authentic to the quoted age, I have utilized “aging” techniques to make my compositions read as if they were native to the Revolutionary War era, rather than modern constructs. To this end I have been teaching myself calligraphy. I have employed an archaic dip pen in my drawing and writing and have now went so far as to do much of the illustrating with a quill pen that I fashioned from a feather. I have also employed the use of actual bull feces in my depictions of the bullshit passing for History in Texas public schools. I have dubbed this “special” ink Texas Tea, in honor of the Texas State Board of Education. I have been teaching myself ceramic techniques in order to create sculptural objects that can function as illustrations through photographing them. Some of these work in a dual way, the straightforward image serving to illustrate the schoolbook text while the sculpture, unbeknownst to the casual observer, may also function as a Teapot or other vessel, in reference to the Tea Party, or reveal additional elements on the unseen sides, which adds additional layers of content to the pieces.

My drawings and other media are displayed with the illustrated texts. When accompanied by these contemporary textbook quotes, the visual works prompt an internal dialogue that questions why they are executed in an archaic style and why they were made at all, raising awareness of the misinformation being distributed in public schools with public monies. When these fictive textbook statements are illustrated, the bizarre nature of the claims, and the breach of the wall of separation between church and state, is manifested in a more immediate and obvious way than textual critique alone can provide. Creating this work is my interventionist response to the political and corporate indoctrination that is being levied against our most vulnerable citizens in a way that is so harmful to our collective interests. By illuminating and subverting the very texts created to misinform, my work does the very opposite.

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Adams, John. (The Political Writings of John Adams. (Regnery Publishing, 2001), 124-125.

Allen, Ethan. Reason, The Only Oracle of Man Or a Compendius System of Natural Religion, 2011. http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/37694.

Althusser, Louis. On Ideology. Translated by Ben Brewster. London ; New York: Verso, 2008.

Barton, David, and Glenn Beck. The Jefferson Lies: Exposing the Myths You’ve Always Believed About Thomas Jefferson. Book Club. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 2012.

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Paine, Thomas. Rights of Man: Being an Answer to Mr. Burke’s Attack on the French Revolution .. J.S. Jordan, 1791.

———. The Age of Reason, Etc, 1839.

Philp, Mark. “Thomas Paine.” In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, edited by Edward N. Zalta, Winter 2013., 2013. http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2013/entries/paine/.

“Publisher Pulls Controversial Thomas Jefferson Book, Citing Loss Of Confidence.” NPR.org. Accessed February 24, 2015. http://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-way/2012/08/09/158510648/publisher-pulls-controversial-thomas-jefferson-book-citing-loss-of-confidence.

Raphael, Ray. A People’s History of the American Revolution: How Common People Shaped the Fight for Independence. New York: Harper Perennial, 2002.

———. Founding Myths: Stories That Hide Our Patriotic Past. Tenth Anniversary Edition edition. New Press, The, 2014.

Rossano, Matt J. Alexander Hamilton’s Religion: A Temperate Example For Today’s Fractured World, 2011. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/matt-j-rossano/hamiltons-religion_b_803677.html.

“RRReport2008web.pdf.” Accessed January 13, 2015. http://www.tfn.org/site/DocServer/RRReport2008web.pdf?docID=501.

“Slashart 17 | Doubleslashart.” Accessed February 23, 2015.http://doubleslashart.blogspot.com/2012/03/slashart-17.html.

“SPECIAL EDITION” NEW YORK POST, 2009. https://vimeo.com/6676567.

Staloff, Darren. “Deism and the Founding of the United States.” Divining America, TeacherServe©. National Humanities Center. April 26, 2015. <http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/eighteen/ekeyinfo/deism.htm>

Strauss, Valerie. “Proposed Texas Textbooks Are Inaccurate, Biased and Politicized, New Report Finds.” The Washington Post, September 2014. http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/answer-sheet/wp/2014/09/12/proposed-texas-textbooks-are-inaccurate-biased-and-politicized-new-report-finds/.

Taibbi, Matt. The Divide: American Injustice in the Age of the Wealth Gap. First Edition edition. New York: Spiegel & Grau, 2014.

“Texas’ New Public School Textbooks Promote Climate Change Denial and Downplay Segregation.” Mother Jones. Accessed February 23, 2015. http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2014/09/texas-textbooks-promote-climate-change-denial-downplay-segregation.

Texas Textbooks Approved Amid Controversy, 2014. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/11/21/texas-textbooks-approved_n_6200968.html.

“‘The American River Ganges’ – 30 September, 1871.” Illustrating Chinese Exclusion. Accessed April 27, 2015. http://thomasnastcartoons.com/irish-catholic-cartoons/the-american-river-ganges-1871/.

The Iroquois Tribes.” American History From Pre-Columbian to the New Millennium. Accessed April 26th, 2015.http://www.ushistory.org/us/1d.asp

The Yes Men, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_Yes_Men&oldid=637110820.

“The Yes Men.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, December 17, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_Yes_Men&oldid=637110820.

“Treaty of Peace and Friendship between the United States and the Bey and Subjects of Tripoli of Barbary.” n.d. http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Tripoli.

“The Merry Pranksters And the Art of the Hoax.” The New York Times, December 23, 1990, sec. Arts. http://www.nytimes.com/1990/12/23/arts/the-merry-pranksters-and-the-art-of-the-hoax.html.

Zinn, Howard. A People’s History of the United States: 1492-Present. Rev&Updtd edition. New York: Perennial, 1995.

 

Sours: http://www.bryananthonymoore.net/index.php/home/projects/national-mythstory/national-mythstory/

Christine Bennett

Independent Non-Executive Director, Regis Healthcare Ltd.

Christine Bennett is a businessperson who has been the head of 6 different companies and occupies the position of Chairman for Bupa Health Foundation Ltd. Dr. Bennett is also Chairman at Research Australia Ltd., Member of The Royal Australasian College of Physicians and Deputy Vice Chancellor at the University of Notre Dame Australia School of Medicine and on the board of 6 other companies.

In her past career Christine Bennett was Chairman of Sydney Childrens Hospitals Network, Chief Executive Officer & Managing Director at Total Healthcare Enterprises Ltd., Chief Executive Officer at Westmead Hospital, Chief Medical Officer at Medical Benefits Fund of Australia Ltd., Chief Medical Officer of Bupa Australia Health Pty Ltd., Partner at KPMG Australia Pty Ltd. and Chairman of Sydney Childrens Hospital Foundation.

Christine Bennett received an undergraduate degree from The University of Sydney and a graduate degree from The University of New South Wales.

No news for REG in the past two years.
Sours: https://www.wsj.com/market-data/quotes/AU/XASX/REG/company-people/executive-profile/159294100
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Last night was the best night of my life. As I whisper "I miss you," I believe somehow you can still hear me. When you are old and gray and full of sleep. "Real love amounts to withholding the truth, even when you're offered the perfect opportunity to hurt someone's feelings. The little mermaid learns that the prince is fond of her, but has fallen in love with the pretty girl at the temple who brought him back to consciousness on the night of the shipwreck. We will miss you and love you always. To quantify them, which means to limit them. In other words, online chatting is a very real way to connect and. Amon - fallen angel who is a strong marquis over 40 legions. I think the sons name starts with an R. I do feel like I'm falling out of love with him. But I was a Catholic priest: pursuing our relationship would mean turning away from my vocation. Reasons Why He May Be Hesitant. Those that truly love have roots that grow towards each other underground, and when all the pretty blossoms have fallen from their branches, they find that they are one tree and not two. The position has been filled. I think his name starts with an I. The Tramp falls in love with a blind flower girl and sets out to raise money so she can afford an. and he wanted every little girl to grow up to. My books: God Has No Grandchildren; The Little Oratory. she leaves, but when she returns on a later date there's a little girl with blonde hair and wearing a dress, who brings her over to the table to see what the woman is making - it's a doll who looks just like her. "It's amazing because they're so good working with each other. Apr 07, 2018 · If that Chinese girl has many suitors, you’d want nothing else but to stand out. The Half Of It is based on Wu's own experiences growing up as a lesbian in the Chinese-American community, and Ellie seems to be closely based on Wu, so it's safe to assume that she is also a lesbian. es/ng/UST1. So my husband has early onset Alzheimer's too. She's been working really hard to learn this one on ukulele :)Click here to Subscribe -ht. Single-sex education, also known as single-gender education and gender-isolated education, is the practice of conducting education with male and female students attending separate classes, perhaps in separate buildings or schools. 3) The Way He Looks. The global pandemic has, in many cases, turned even routine travel into a risk not worth taking, and it has left many longing for the day when we will once again set off for a new destination CMS 1609330140 f0b4ae05-8d04-4814-b01f-064c94da5a23 0d353b26-0b03-409a-b324-f2be3bdea75b 31. Tuesday, August 17, 7:15 PM. It is true she had on a pair of slippers when she left home, but they were not of much use. There are thousands of yesterday and there are billions of tomorrows but there is only one today and I will not let the day go by without showcasing my love for you, telling you how I. And for many other men, it’s Catholic school girls. Little Women; Jane Eyre. Catholic education in Edmonton has a proud tradition that dates back to before Alberta was a province. Hi Everyone! For years, I've made my own rosaries, and I FINALLY got around to selling them online. ‘We became friends and I began to fall. 6 months ago. Most people donate because Catholic Online is useful. If you donate just $5. I turned to a middle aged woman sitting next to me and said, "Poor. When you are old and gray and full of sleep. -- as per e-mails received from Dominic Sanchez Falar. Or should "Catholic" only be used as an adjective, as in, "I am Catholic?" The choice of "identify as" reflects in language just how deeply our society has fallen into the quagmire of. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud. They're beautiful (I think), blessed and exorcised in the old Latin Rite, and followers of this page only can get 25% off by clicking the link below! Please also take a moment to "like" the Facebook page. Love for others for the sake of Allah. she leaves, but when she returns on a later date there's a little girl with blonde hair and wearing a dress, who brings her over to the table to see what the woman is making - it's a doll who looks just like her. Pretty awesome. By deleted member · 5 posts · 242 views. Judd Apatow comes at us again with a romantic comedy that explores the trial and tribulations of falling in love. a world where everything you love can be washed away. By then, we had five children in our growing clan. Apr 29, 2021 · The Case for the Young St. There once was a woman who fell in love with a poem. In short, the priest falls in love. Author Unknown (This poem can be modified for gender) Another leaf has fallen, another soul has gone. Therese, the Little Flower, on October 1st each year. The royal family has all blue eyes. Forever in my heart, my beautiful baby girl. This content is. The girl meets a guy who is a king though she doesn’t know it yet. At less than 4 weeks old, Whisper was abandoned by her mom. Jump to Reading. There is a lot more to the vision than what is posted below, please read the full vision in context on this. The Catholic Church teaches that marriage between two baptized persons is a sacrament. Only homewrecking harlots fall in love with married men. Rainbow Bird and Monster Man, 2002 Australian documentary film; The Reader, 2008; A woman has a sexual relationship with a 15-year-old boy. You can really, really, really get to know someone, and the potential for real love can certainly be present. Looking for the following signs, he's falling in love but scared to admit it to gauge where your relationship is headed. A new Men's Bible Study will be held on the 3rd Tuesday of each month at 7PM. Aesthetic Transfiguration. As well as being a writer of romance, Noël is a huge reader of romance, with favourite genres including Regency romance, Gothic romance and Student-Teacher romance. This content is. I felt flooded with relief knowing I wasn't the only girl who had fallen in love with her best friend. Written and produced by Madonna and Patrick Leonard, the song heralded an artistic and personal approach to songwriting for Madonna, who believed that she needed to cater more to her adult audience. Dave Vanian is frothing and spitting on himself to get to see this girl, and, in fairness. "A little catholic girl who's fallen in love" : 1981 singles. Author: kether82. The fact that Kyle and Faith play side by side for the most part is no accident. Come, Let us give thanks to the Lord for God’s great love is without end. Apr 23, 2021 · Poems For Couples. It is true she had on a pair of slippers when she left home, but they were not of much use. "A couple of years ago I discovered The Catholic Company and your Morning Offering which I go to first in my office each morning when I open my email. -- as per e-mails received from Dominic Sanchez Falar. May 20, 2018 · The latest Tweets from Neptune Fallen (@NeptuneFell). So my husband has early onset Alzheimer's too. Materialism does not necessarily mean wealth and hoarding. Had not even heard of any of these other than 'The Tenth. and he wanted every little girl to grow up to. He cuts off all contact with the woman. One For The Catholic Girls Lyrics by Simon Joyner. Only sad, pathetic girls fall in love with married men. Bryana's biological father, Bryan (Anthony Anderson) shows up and disrupts the little girl's routine. Christians in the first century never called their leaders, "father". You don’t want to give her the impression that you’re trying too hard. Sometimes this dream is connected to a close female in life. Every day you stand beside me, comforting me, supporting me, protecting me. And when you pray, Psalms 116:2 tells you he inclines his ear to you. "I Saw Mommy Kissing Santa Claus". A person cannot fall in love with someone he or she has never met in person. RELATED: 15 Best Anime Movies Ranked (According To IMDb). I'm so grateful that we get to share our lives with each other. Most people donate because Catholic Online is useful. Arlington Catholic Herald 200 N. In short, the priest falls in love. This is a story of the latter. He leaves the fragrant blossoms, and lovely. "Falling in love is not at all the most stupid thing that people do, but gravitation cannot be held responsible for it. Overview of how Catholic faith contradicts the Bible. I adore a good love story. Girl, 2, dies after being hit in head with AC plate at family party. ' ―Louis de Bernières, Captain Corelli's Mandolin" — jenniferlegerm. I think it was called the noise we hear in our hearts "you do your share and i'll do my part, to quiet the noise we hear in our hearts, when it comes to love we learn together howwe don't need faith and we don't need hope, when we. Despite their vast differences, the two work together to communicate and enjoy the magic of their first love. Love In The Time of Magic. The dream of a girl is connected to out your own ideas and beliefs and spiritual acceptance and love. Organizers. The king I think is fae and he does traditional braiding on the girls hair. In the cold and darkness, a poor little girl with bare head and naked feet, roamed through the streets. The position has been filled. 75 inches (24-pages). 4 - Flirting is an Artform in France. So, to help you sort out your true feelings and find out if you're actually in love, or if it's simply a big 'ol crush, take this quiz to help you determine what's really going on. A big sign you're falling in compassionate love is an ever-growing empathy towards your partner: you feel sad when they're sad, happy when they're happy. They are no longer accepting applications. To live in the hearts of those we love is not to die. Choose the Little Catholic jewelry store for elegant, intricate. A few years ago, Diane and I signed up for a women's conference at our church. Apr 29, 2021 · The Case for the Young St. Before long, he falls in love with an art student who's racially mixed Black and white. Hey have a look at my son band please New Avenue ty xx. I do feel like I'm falling out of love with him. There are thousands of yesterday and there are billions of tomorrows but there is only one today and I will not let the day go by without showcasing my love for you, telling you how I. 3) The Way He Looks. Overview of how Catholic faith contradicts the Bible. One For The Catholic Girls Lyrics by Simon Joyner. overseer-3 27 October 2002. When you are old and gray and full of sleep. It’s a real choice to put all your chips on. Harry has faced terrible odds before. The daughter of Sir John Mills and Mary Hayley Bell, and younger sister of actress Juliet Mills, Mills began her acting career as a child and was hailed as a promising newcomer, winning the BAFTA Award for Most Promising Newcomer for her performance in the British crime drama film Tiger Bay (1959), the Academy. Humor and love make a brilliant combination. Enjoy the Season. Jump to Reading. I have 2 girls for a previous marriage (6 & 8 y/old) and they absolutely love him, he is more than a father for them, he love girls and he only has one of his own, she is 20, he always wanted to. I turned to a middle aged woman sitting next to me and said, "Poor. For the first couple of years I was in a sad, isolated, and withdrawn state. The girl is the kings mate. Or girl meets God. At less than 4 weeks old, Whisper was abandoned by her mom. Read Every Article Esquire Has Ever Published. The Thibaults (French: Les Thibault) is a multi-volume roman-fleuve (French, novel sequence) by Roger Martin du Gard, which follows the fortunes of two brothers, Antoine and Jacques Thibault, from their upbringing in a prosperous Catholic bourgeois family to the end of the First World War. They talk endlessly about the love of God, love for God, God's love of man, love of neighbor, even love of self, albeit this last one at. Sexuality is more than a spectrum or a gay-straight binary with bi firmly in the middle. She Cuts Out Other Guys. Genuine romance exists when two people show that they care for each other through small acts of love and affection. Nothing can ever take away a love the heart holds dear. The fallen angels of the Order of the Blackened Denarius. ― Nicholas Sparks, Safe Haven. Is there anyone who would be willing to listen to my story (through private email, messaging) and give me your honest opinion on how to deal with this situation? I do not have anyone else to talk to. Catholic bishops from across the U. They're beautiful (I think), blessed and exorcised in the old Latin Rite, and followers of this page only can get 25% off by clicking the link below! Please also take a moment to "like" the Facebook page. In the days of arranged marriages, people entered the union based on other issues such as land mergers and power. Pretty awesome. It's a real choice to put all your chips on. In August 1888 Edmonton Catholic parents applied to organize a separate school district for their children. is a manufacturer of air filters, cold air intake systems, oil filters, performance parts, and other related products. 1 May 1982. Falling in love tends to override (or at least be on equal footing with) just about anything else. Jan 29, 2020 · The Little Match Girl by Hans Christian Andersen. It is true she had on a pair of slippers when she left home, but they were not of much use. O commemorate me where there is water,. A face on a page, a gift from above. A new Men's Bible Study will be held on the 3rd Tuesday of each month at 7PM. Come, Let us give thanks to the Lord for God’s great love is without end. com is a huge collection of poems from famous and amateur poets from around the world — collaboratively published by a community of authors and contributing editors. Iam now 15,and last summer,when i was 14,i was the "little" flowergirl in my nieces wedding. There once was a woman who fell in love with a poem. There's a candlelight vigil for the new fallen hero But I've. A person cannot fall in love with someone he or she has never met in person. 8, 2019, in Anaheim, California. Votes: 202,010 | Gross: $115. Written and produced by Madonna and Patrick Leonard, the song heralded an artistic and personal approach to songwriting for Madonna, who believed that she needed to cater more to her adult audience. Teeny-tiny puppy named Luna becomes obsessed with a 120-pound Great Dane 😍To help save more animals like Luna, you can support Love And Rescue here: https:/. I love reading about early Church history, especially the ecumenical councils of the Church and I love learning about the lives of the saints. But I'm not in love with him , I feel guilty. When a couple falls in love it has become a loving relationship. Hey have a look at my son band please New Avenue ty xx. she leaves, but when she returns on a later date there's a little girl with blonde hair and wearing a dress, who brings her over to the table to see what the woman is making - it's a doll who looks just like her. One particular study found that when both parents were faithful and active in the church, 93 percent of. And that faithfulness rubbed off on her. You have blessed me in more ways than I can count and in so many more ways than I probably even know. The narrator describes his childhood bedtime routine, when he would drift between waking and sleeping, hoping for his beloved mother to come and give him a kiss. Turns out her marriage to Santa (played by MadTV's Will Sasso) has hit a bumpy patch, so when she gets a Christmas letter from a lonely little girl, she heads to Las Vegas for a few reindeer games. Only homewrecking harlots fall in love with married men. I met an old friend at a ceilidh – and romance followed. Poems about Love speak about the passion, desire and vulnerability of being in love. But there’s more than meets the eye. Christmas Eve 3:00 p. The royal family has all blue eyes. " - David Sedaris 29. Danny 16 August 2021 Reply. Known to fans as " Lesbian Jesus," singer, songwriter, actress, and director Hayley Kiyoko has been an advocate for LGBTQ+ representation in pop since the release of 2015's " Girls Like. Set in Los Angeles, California, the film is a loose remake of Wim Wenders' 1987 film Wings of Desire (Der Himmel über Berlin), which was set in Berlin. So, to help you sort out your true feelings and find out if you're actually in love, or if it's simply a big 'ol crush, take this quiz to help you determine what's really going on. I wore a cute,puffy,above the knees,white sleeveless flower girl dress with a veil,lace anklets and white mary jane shoes. I think it was called the noise we hear in our hearts "you do your share and i'll do my part, to quiet the noise we hear in our hearts, when it comes to love we learn together howwe don't need faith and we don't need hope, when we. ' ―Louis de Bernières, Captain Corelli's Mandolin" — jenniferlegerm. Falling In Love Quotes. I think his name starts with an I. Therese, the Little Flower, on October 1st each year. 75 inches (24-pages). Catholic Girls Lyrics: A festive CYO party with crepe paper streamers, contestants for the broom dance, the hokey pokey, baked goods, & Father Riley making sure the lights don't go down too low. She attends school in the future. John in St. City of Angels is a 1998 American romantic fantasy film directed by Brad Silberling and starring Nicolas Cage and Meg Ryan. Paul Rust, and Gillian Jacobs co-star in this honest take on the modern. The little mermaid learns that the prince is fond of her, but has fallen in love with the pretty girl at the temple who brought him back to consciousness on the night of the shipwreck. True love is love in its purest form, while romantic love needs sexual attraction to stay alive. our love is gone At least I don't where it. She followed wherever the Lamb went, often in little and hidden ways. The Rosary is also a powerful prayer for their return; many conversions have taken place through the praying of the Rosary. She grew up in Doylestown, where she attended Central Bucks West High School. He confuses me. Hi Everyone! For years, I've made my own rosaries, and I FINALLY got around to selling them online. Book superstore magnate, Joe Fox and independent book shop owner, Kathleen Kelly fall in love in the anonymity of the Internet both blissfully unaware that he's trying to put her out of business. Federal Tax Identification Number: 81-0596847. It's as the Proverb says, "Train a child in the way he should go, and when he is old he will not turn from it" ( Proverbs 22:6 ). A little catholic girl Who's fallen in love A face on a page A gift from above She should have known better Than to giver her heart She should have known better Than to ever part Without me Without me I gave her everything That I ever owned I think she understood But she never spoke. So, to help you sort out your true feelings and find out if you're actually in love, or if it's simply a big 'ol crush, take this quiz to help you determine what's really going on. Paul, MN 55105. Sample #14: Still Falling in Love With You. " - David Sedaris 29. The Red Court of vampires. She was part of a group of women that filled the role of mothers to these first priests—keeping them fed, praying for them. The fear of being rejected and subsequently losing the friendship seems like too much of a price to pay for her feelings. Last night was the best night of my life. She's been working really hard to learn this one on ukulele :)Click here to Subscribe -ht. Piaf wrote the lyrics herself, and the melody was written by Louis Guglielmi. Suite 615 Arlington, VA 22203 703-841-2590. Mary of the Angels. May 20, 2018 · The latest Tweets from Neptune Fallen (@NeptuneFell). The global pandemic has, in many cases, turned even routine travel into a risk not worth taking, and it has left many longing for the day when we will once again set off for a new destination CMS 1609330140 f0b4ae05-8d04-4814-b01f-064c94da5a23 0d353b26-0b03-409a-b324-f2be3bdea75b 31. And God is. And if you're wondering whether true love and romantic love are the same, it really isn't, even though we almost always associate true love with romantic love. 84: 2 "Wrestling With a Sticky Situation" Victor Nelli, Jr. Some of my favorites are Fallen (Denzel Washington), The Order (Hugh Ledger), The Prophecy (Christopher Walken), Stigmata (Gabriel Byrne). As well as being a writer of romance, Noël is a huge reader of romance, with favourite genres including Regency romance, Gothic romance and Student-Teacher romance. " - David Sedaris 29. In the tradition of Holy Cross, we are committed, as educators in the faith, to helping people know, love, and serve. Little Catholic Girl Has Fallen In Love Leo Marks. You can chat for hours, days, even months or years online, and that includes Facetiming. the woman has also. Love fighting games and MLP, huge Brony- oh and I love World of Warcraft and Star Trek. Your Catholic Voice Foundation has been granted a recognition of tax exemption under Section 501 (c) (3) of the Internal Revenue Code. On the dating scene, it is not uncommon for people to have more than one dating situation going on at one time. The Red Court of vampires. Only fools fall in love with married men. Karen helped me immensely, and by March, we were dating long-distance. “She wasnt exactly sure when it happened. Alcott often borrowed plot elements from her favorite author, Charlotte Brontë, and Love Chase has many echoes of Jane Eyre, including a mad wife, a red room, a bigamous marriage, a lightning-struck tree, and a love affair between an impecunious teenage girl and a wealthy, mercurial older man. I consider myself a baby in the Faith since I have only been a practicing Catholic for less than three years. are gathering Wednesday for a weeklong retreat on the clergy sex abuse crisis at a seminary near Chicago. The greatest romantic mini-series of all time! gerry-russell-139 11 October 1999. Snopes is the internet's definitive resource for fact-checking misinformation, debunking fake news, and researching urban legends. Only homewrecking harlots fall in love with married men. Federal Tax Identification Number: 81-0596847. This list of angel names for baby boys and girls (with meanings) are some of the most angelic names ever. 00, or whatever you can, Catholic Online could keep thriving for years. Paul, Minnesota. Dec 14, 2016 · Does She Like Me? (By A Girl - 100% Accurate)💕. When I met the woman who would eventually become my wife, it was actually mutual indifference at first sight. I feel sorry for him. Rather than evict the residents and revamp the building, Elgar begins making improvements to it. -slq_alma21148790970002061 Vida, 1882-1968 Lahey-other Box 8635 (items 1 and 2). Imelda Lambertini before – but after reading her story, you’ll wonder how that was possible! Lambertini was born in 1322 in Bologna, Italy to two devoutly Catholic parents. This date was chosen because Therese died on September 30th. Falling in love tends to override (or at least be on equal footing with) just about anything else. Here are 11 things women do when they are falling in love: 1. He means too much to her. As with the original, City of Angels tells the story of an angel (Cage) who falls in love with a mortal woman (Ryan), and. Perhaps the silliest example of a song being banned, the classic Christmas song was deemed too scandalous by the Roman Catholic Church. He tells us that we can call on him, night or day. Little Catholic girl is falling in love A face on a page, gift from above She should have known better than to give her heart She should have known better than to ever part Without me Without me I. Catholic and religious jewelry has a special ability to facilitate daily encounters with God through beauty. You will be pleased to know that this is a positive dream. On the dating scene, it is not uncommon for people to have more than one dating situation going on at one time. The marriage, he reports, "has been a little harder than I have ever admitted. Congregation Of Father David Gréa In Tears As The Popular Catholic Priest Confesses He Has Fallen In Love And Wants To Marry ‘I am your father,’ says the caption on the tweet about Father David Gréa posted by the Lyon Catholic church centre on Twitter. or to how special she is, or my love for her. ‘We became friends and I began to fall. They are In love. A big sign you're falling in compassionate love is an ever-growing empathy towards your partner: you feel sad when they're sad, happy when they're happy. 29 at the school's Marion Gym. OMD (Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark) - Joan of Arc Lyrics. Rainbow Bird and Monster Man, 2002 Australian documentary film; The Reader, 2008; A woman has a sexual relationship with a 15-year-old boy. As I whisper "I miss you," I believe somehow you can still hear me. 5 - Body Language. Big Ed has a day job as a professional photographer in the San Diego, California area. The Red Court of vampires. His parents are stunned by the news. But Elgar has a change of heart when he gets to know the building's diverse array of tenants. Little by little I kept finding articles and hearing the answers to my questions on EWTN radio shows. A person cannot fall in love with someone he or she has never met in person. Thought the story has been moved forward fifty years, there's the same refusal to swap photos, same yellow rose, same old lady to direct the hero to where his beautiful lady love awaits him. an experience of promised wholeness for a fallen world. One particular study found that when both parents were faithful and active in the church, 93 percent of. -slq_alma21148790970002061 Vida, 1882-1968 Lahey-other Box 8635 (items 1 and 2). As well as being a writer of romance, Noël is a huge reader of romance, with favourite genres including Regency romance, Gothic romance and Student-Teacher romance. "An enchanting, sparkling book about the many meanings of sisterhood. Hayley Catherine Rose Vivien Mills (born 18 April 1946) is an English actress. Little Catholic Girl Has Fallen In Love Leo Marks. I think the sons name starts with an R. There would be a beginning and an end. Allocen - fallen angel who is a duke in hell. our love is gone At least I don't where it. Joan Of Arc Video: A little Catholic girl who's fallen in love. es/ng/UST1. (CNS photo/Edgard Garrido, Reuters). Falling in love tends to override (or at least be on equal footing with) just about anything else. Poems about Love speak about the passion, desire and vulnerability of being in love. The poem was very, very old; it had been born in 1773, when it emerged from the body of another pregnant woman. Some of my favorites are Fallen (Denzel Washington), The Order (Hugh Ledger), The Prophecy (Christopher Walken), Stigmata (Gabriel Byrne). In fact, I don't ever think about angels. All Contacts. For it I sincerely thank you. They took tabernacles and sacred vessels, and imprisoned Catholic priests. When you fell in love with your spouse you probably had a racing heart and butterflies in your stomach. Search millions of historic photos. He prays that his feelings will stop. Joan Of Arc Video: A little Catholic girl who's fallen in love. Jump to Reading. He confuses me. I am looking for a book that I read some time ago… based in the Caribbean it is about a young black girl, who loves swimming in the bay (can't remember the bay) she falls in love with a serviceman ww2 who is injured and she helps look after him in hospital he has to go away on a mission and is gone for years she marries another man who is a drunkard…she wants to become a nurse but there. It’s euphoric and all encompassing. Extract from "Prepare to Mett Your God" NDE/vision by Angelica Elizabeth Zambrano Mora, 18 years old, Ecuador. or my love for her. Organizers. Most people donate because Catholic Online is useful. Little Women; Jane Eyre. I met an old friend at a ceilidh – and romance followed. Although never clarified, the abuse seemed to start from a young age, but they did not start having intercourse until she reached puberty. Every healing he performed proclaimed the power of divine love to perfect nature. Love for Allah swt. Last night was the best night of my life. This mentoring program allows all of us to give back with our time and expertise to the next generation, and help make their paths forward after graduation — and beyond — a little easier. Regardless, I have fallen truly in love with Christ and His Church. our love is gone At least I don't where it. When a couple falls in love it has become a loving relationship. Author Unknown (This poem can be modified for gender) Another leaf has fallen, another soul has gone. As I whisper "I miss you," I believe somehow you can still hear me. She grew up in Doylestown, where she attended Central Bucks West High School. All Contacts. Falling in love tends to override (or at least be on equal footing with) just about anything else. Part of her role was as a spiritual mother and sister to the Apostles. Thought the story has been moved forward fifty years, there's the same refusal to swap photos, same yellow rose, same old lady to direct the hero to where his beautiful lady love awaits him. Joan of Arc Lyrics: Little Catholic girl is falling in love / A face on a page, gift from above / She should have known better than to give her heart / She should have known better than to ever part. Sometimes this dream is connected to a close female in life. Single-sex education, also known as single-gender education and gender-isolated education, is the practice of conducting education with male and female students attending separate classes, perhaps in separate buildings or schools. By deleted member · 5 posts · 242 views. Grammatically, the imperfect tense presides. 2 - No Dating Protocol in France. our love is gone At least I don't where it. Of all the wonderful songs in her repertoire, though, "La Vie en Rose" ("Life Through Rose-Colored Glasses") is surely the most beloved and best-remembered, all around the world. "A couple of years ago I discovered The Catholic Company and your Morning Offering which I go to first in my office each morning when I open my email. Search millions of historic photos. She's been working really hard to learn this one on ukulele :)Click here to Subscribe -ht. "Top 10 Popular Songs About Angels. Peter Stalker argues that there are better ways to help. May 11, 2017 · Love itself is what is left over when being in love has burned away, and this is both an art and a fortunate accident. Looking for the following signs, he's falling in love but scared to admit it to gauge where your relationship is headed. Peter Stalker argues that there are better ways to help. Dreaming about a little girl indicates. The practice of single-sex schooling was common before the 20th century, particularly in secondary and higher. A person cannot fall in love with someone he or she has never met in person. She should have know better than to ever part. In other words, online chatting is a very real way to connect and. Abaddon - fallen angel of death whose name means "to destroy. There’s a good chance you haven’t even heard of Bl. A little catholic girl Who's fallen in love A face on a page A gift from above She should have known better Than to giver her heart She should have known better Than to ever part Without me Without me I gave her everything That I ever owned I think she understood But she never spoke. Love does not delight in evil but rejoices with the truth. After intermittently saying it for a few years, it gave me the strength to go to confession after 30 years of being in a State of Mortal Sin. Congregation Of Father David Gréa In Tears As The Popular Catholic Priest Confesses He Has Fallen In Love And Wants To Marry ‘I am your father,’ says the caption on the tweet about Father David Gréa posted by the Lyon Catholic church centre on Twitter. I feel sorry for him. Thomas Aquinas, echoing the Fathers. Girl, 2, dies after being hit in head with AC plate at family party. The first one will be on Tuesday, January 21st. Director: Robert Luketic | Stars: Kate Bosworth, Josh Duhamel, Topher Grace, Nathan Lane. The longtime history professor, pastor, and commentator still continues to educate well into his 60th year of being a priest. Meanwhile, Vanessa is put on. "Like a Prayer" is a song by American singer Madonna from her 1989 fourth studio album of the same name. Despite headlines about a powerful "gay lobby" within the Vatican, and a new Pope promising reform, the Catholic Church's gay cardinals, monks, and other clergy. Catholic education in Edmonton has a proud tradition that dates back to before Alberta was a province. Or even when it started. On the dating scene, it is not uncommon for people to have more than one dating situation going on at one time. I felt flooded with relief knowing I wasn't the only girl who had fallen in love with her best friend. The royal family has all blue eyes. Summer-Ready Pants Will Make You Reconsider Shorts. Mary of the Angels. A little catholic girl Who's fallen in love A face on a page A gift from above She should have known better Than to giver her heart She sho. You probably instinctively know, if you are a fallen away Catholic, that Christ needs to be placed at the center. Or should "Catholic" only be used as an adjective, as in, "I am Catholic?" The choice of "identify as" reflects in language just how deeply our society has fallen into the quagmire of. The dream of a girl is connected to out your own ideas and beliefs and spiritual acceptance and love. Love for Allah swt. The king I think is fae and he does traditional braiding on the girls hair. a world where everything you love can be washed away. I have 2 girls for a previous marriage (6 & 8 y/old) and they absolutely love him, he is more than a father for them, he love girls and he only has one of his own, she is 20, he always wanted to. 6 months ago. Suite 615 Arlington, VA 22203 703-841-2590. So, to help you sort out your true feelings and find out if you're actually in love, or if it's simply a big 'ol crush, take this quiz to help you determine what's really going on. You can chat for hours, days, even months or years online, and that includes Facetiming. RELATED: 15 Best Anime Movies Ranked (According To IMDb). I have also fallen in love with a Catholic priest. He was a fur trapper, wilderness guide, Indian agent, and U. Paul, MN 55105. its been 3 years later and he's declining fast. 84: 2 "Wrestling With a Sticky Situation" Victor Nelli, Jr. Love in Islam constitutes the following: 1. All she knew for sure was that right here and now, she was falling hard and she could only pray that he was feeling the same way. The girl is the kings mate. Those that truly love have roots that grow towards each other underground, and when all the pretty blossoms have fallen from their branches, they find that they are one tree and not two. Giving Others a Reason to Be Christian. They talk endlessly about the love of God, love for God, God's love of man, love of neighbor, even love of self, albeit this last one at. True love is love in its purest form, while romantic love needs sexual attraction to stay alive. List of fallen angels and fallen angel names. And even more, he loves to be the source of that smile, even if it means making dumb jokes for her to laugh at. Hey have a look at my son band please New Avenue ty xx. This is a story of the latter. Poems about Love speak about the passion, desire and vulnerability of being in love. 75 inches (24-pages). Hayley Catherine Rose Vivien Mills (born 18 April 1946) is an English actress. Materialism does not necessarily mean wealth and hoarding. When we live with people day in and day out, their presence because common place and can easily taken for granted. Many years ago, when she was at a similar age, the teacher (let's call her Ms. Posted on Jan 4, 2012 • 7 Comments. Part of her role was as a spiritual mother and sister to the Apostles. God leans in. A being more powerful and dangerous on an order of magnitude beyond what the world has seen in a millennium is. A big sign you're falling in compassionate love is an ever-growing empathy towards your partner: you feel sad when they're sad, happy when they're happy. Or girl meets God. Extract from "Prepare to Mett Your God" NDE/vision by Angelica Elizabeth Zambrano Mora, 18 years old, Ecuador. Summer-Ready Pants Will Make You Reconsider Shorts. the Cap-Verdi prayer group - Cannes, France - St. Little catholic girl is fallin' in love A face on a page, a gift from above She should've known better than to give her heart "Little catholic girl has fallen in love A face on a page, a gift from above" then I had a reverie/vision of her life and I was moved to tears. He tells us that we can call on him, night or day. Feb 13, 2019 · As the U. True love has to be experienced naturally and. When in love, indulge in fun to keep your relationship alive and kicking. Every season has its upside; however, autumn has a particular beauty to it. Peter Stalker argues that there are better ways to help. And for many other men, it’s Catholic school girls. I turned to a middle aged woman sitting next to me and said, "Poor. The bar was set pretty low for … Falling in Love is a Terrible Reason to Marry Read More ». The high school experience can be rough — especially for LGBTQ kids who may be struggling with their sexual identities while trying to. By deleted member · 5 posts · 242 views. 4 - Flirting is an Artform in France. At 16 months, Evy had her first grand mal seizure, as well as her first hospitalization. Mom made a cloth diaper for me by sewing a package of the Gerber flat cloth diapers in the 24x27 inch size for me to wear under my dress. The marriage, he reports, "has been a little harder than I have ever admitted. 5 - Body Language. Rainbow Bird and Monster Man, 2002 Australian documentary film; The Reader, 2008; A woman has a sexual relationship with a 15-year-old boy. I think his name starts with an I. "I Saw Mommy Kissing Santa Claus". Harry has faced terrible odds before. I turned to a middle aged woman sitting next to me and said, "Poor. And for many other men, it’s Catholic school girls. Happy anniversary my love. The little mermaid learns that the prince is fond of her, but has fallen in love with the pretty girl at the temple who brought him back to consciousness on the night of the shipwreck. He won't allow anybody to pick on you and he is more tolerant of the things people do to him than he is about the things they do to you. A young girl died in a freak accident after an air-conditioning compressor plate came off of a truck and hit her in the head. But the only reason that Scripture suggests is he did so to save us from our sins. The romantic coming-of-age drama The Way He Looks has a happy falling in love with your best friend and riding off into the sunset ending that so many straight high school. Hey have a look at my son band please New Avenue ty xx. Thought the story has been moved forward fifty years, there's the same refusal to swap photos, same yellow rose, same old lady to direct the hero to where his beautiful lady love awaits him. They took tabernacles and sacred vessels, and imprisoned Catholic priests. Little Women review - sisters are writin' it for themselves in Greta Gerwig's festive treat The handsome boy next door Laurie is probably in love with all four of the March girls, and this. Jul 04, 2017 · But I fell in love with a man much older than me, and I couldn’t not be with him. He was a fur trapper, wilderness guide, Indian agent, and U. The sensitive. Catholic and religious jewelry has a special ability to facilitate daily encounters with God through beauty. She attends school in the future. Little Women; Jane Eyre. I felt flooded with relief knowing I wasn't the only girl who had fallen in love with her best friend. At age 13, Jimmy was. Author: kether82. Martin's Press, Roosevelt Eleanor 1884 1962 Fiction, Windsor Edward Duke of 1894 1972 Fiction, Presidents spouses United States Fiction, Women detectives Bahamas Fiction, Detective and mystery fiction, Historical fiction acbk camys NA cen 2017-11-01T00:00:00 1 444673 acmus camus NA cen 2017-11-01T00:00:00 1 3175990. I gathered that she was totally blind in one eye and almost blind in the other. The woman was pregnant and tired. Apr 23, 2021 · Poems For Couples. (CNS photo/Edgard Garrido, Reuters). the woman has also. Kit Carson : Christopher Houston Carson (December 24, 1809 – May 23, 1868), better known as Kit Carson, was an American frontiersman. She never shows an interest in any of the guys in her school, and immediately recoils when Paul tries to kiss her. That means, then, that falling in love—or back in it—is an intentional act. It is true she had on a pair of slippers when she left home, but they were not of much use. Paul, Minnesota. Richard Chamberlain became an even bigger heartthrob with the advent of this epic mini-series, Rachel Ward became a star, and Barbara Stanwyk made a major comeback and stole the show in only three hours of on-screen time. Or even when it started. “First best is falling in love. Navigate through our poetry database by subjects, alphabetically or simply search by keywords. 8, 2019, in Anaheim, California. Jul 22, 2021 · Mary Magdalene was at the foot of the cross, and at the empty tomb. I began reading everything that I could get my hands on about the Catholic faith and found EWTN to be an unfailing resource of knowledge and truth. You can submit a new poem, discuss and rate existing work, listen to poems. The Half Of It is based on Wu's own experiences growing up as a lesbian in the Chinese-American community, and Ellie seems to be closely based on Wu, so it's safe to assume that she is also a lesbian. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud. But I'm not in love with him , I feel guilty. Despite headlines about a powerful "gay lobby" within the Vatican, and a new Pope promising reform, the Catholic Church's gay cardinals, monks, and other clergy. This first happened hundreds of years later. The evil man son is the girls best friend. 800-377-0511. If Catholic Online has given you $5. Sexuality is more than a spectrum or a gay-straight binary with bi firmly in the middle. He runs The Awakened Lifestyle, where he uses his expertise in dating, attraction, and social dynamics to help people find love. Search millions of historic photos. COMMENTARY: On the Feast of St. Little Catholic Girl Has Fallen In Love Leo Marks. Known to fans as " Lesbian Jesus," singer, songwriter, actress, and director Hayley Kiyoko has been an advocate for LGBTQ+ representation in pop since the release of 2015's " Girls Like. Kase-san and Morning Glories is an incredibly sweet, animated movie about Yui Yamada, a high school girl who loves flowers and plants, and Tomoka Kase, her girlfriend and the star of the track team. In other words, online chatting is a very real way to connect and. Bryana's biological father, Bryan (Anthony Anderson) shows up and disrupts the little girl's routine. 9 - Dating is Exclusive in France. The Old Testament prophets saw the marriage of a man and woman as a symbol of the covenant relationship between God and his people. Or even when it started. "Falling in love is not at all the most stupid thing that people do, but gravitation cannot be held responsible for it. So my husband has early onset Alzheimer's too. Catholic Girls Lyrics: A festive CYO party with crepe paper streamers, contestants for the broom dance, the hokey pokey, baked goods, & Father Riley making sure the lights don't go down too low. Alcott often borrowed plot elements from her favorite author, Charlotte Brontë, and Love Chase has many echoes of Jane Eyre, including a mad wife, a red room, a bigamous marriage, a lightning-struck tree, and a love affair between an impecunious teenage girl and a wealthy, mercurial older man. This date was chosen because Therese died on September 30th. List of fallen angels and fallen angel names. And when you are talking to her, she’ll keep eye contact to show you that she’s paying attention. Lyrics to Joan Of Arc. As I whisper "I miss you," I believe somehow you can still hear me. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud. Cindy surprised me by saying she believed women should date men, but that she had fallen in love with me This was a problem, as she still thought I was a middle-aged Indian man. Catholic education in Edmonton has a proud tradition that dates back to before Alberta was a province. Bishop Xavier Novell has resigned from the Catholic Church after falling for a satanic erotic fiction author. It's a real choice to put all your chips on. The Catholic Church teaches that marriage between two baptized persons is a sacrament. A relationship is a connection between two individuals. Bringing Up Bates. The Roman Catholic Church celebrates the feast of St. Only homewrecking harlots fall in love with married men. The casting was perfect in every way to bring the story of the Australian Cleary family to life so vividly (Jean Simmons as the mother "Fee" won the Emmy Award that year; unfortunately Henry Mancini didn't for his gorgeous musical score, and he deserved to win!). "Real love amounts to withholding the truth, even when you're offered the perfect opportunity to hurt someone's feelings. All she knew for sure was that right here and now, she was falling hard and she could only pray that he was feeling the same way. The children are in love with each other, and secretly marry, apparently after the play opens. She had personal reasons for wanting to seek absolution, but there was this, too: She said. The Jew, being in great financial straits, learns from a lawyer that he has fallen heir to a large fortune from a great-aunt, and moves into a great house, fitted luxuriously. Over the last year, we have gotten to know each other fairly well. At less than 4 weeks old, Whisper was abandoned by her mom. I sat upon the stage very close to the whole procedure. Part of her role was as a spiritual mother and sister to the Apostles. There is no love in them. For David Lee Roth, it was California girls. Regardless, I have fallen truly in love with Christ and His Church. Judd Apatow comes at us again with a romantic comedy that explores the trial and tribulations of falling in love. Or girl meets God. and he wanted every little girl to grow up to. "She wasnt exactly sure when it happened. Our mission is to proclaim the Good News of Jesus Christ which has immediate and eternal implications for human flourishing. Karen helped me immensely, and by March, we were dating long-distance. "A little catholic girl who's fallen in love" : 1981 singles. Giving Others a Reason to Be Christian. The Catholic Church teaches that marriage between two baptized persons is a sacrament. Bringing Up Bates. But this time it’s different. W hen it debuted on Netflix in 2018, To All the Boys I've Loved Before, the film adaptation of Jenny Han's best-selling young adult novel, in many ways revived the teen rom-com. In short, the priest falls in love. Here he and his. Romantic relationships are the spice of life, they make us feel alive in a way that nothing else can. Aesthetic Transfiguration. Had not even heard of any of these other than 'The Tenth. ' ―Louis de Bernières, Captain Corelli's Mandolin" — jenniferlegerm. Girl, 2, dies after being hit in head with AC plate at family party. and he wanted every little girl to grow up to. Before we discuss the common signs that a man displays when he has conflicted feelings, let's talk about the potential reasons behind this ambivalence. Sunshine State Bates. I consider myself a baby in the Faith since I have only been a practicing Catholic for less than three years. Joseph the Worker, it is noteworthy that the usual arguments for Joseph being young are not related to his capacity to work, but. Jul 05, 2019 · Born in 1947 to a working-class French Catholic family in 1940s California, Bobby Beausoleil’s father supported them as a milkman before working his way up the ladder. Studies led by anthropologist Helen Fisher have revealed that the brain's "in love" phase is a unique and well-defined period of time, and there are 13 telltale signs that you're in it. Apr 09, 2020 · God has given each one of the privilege of prayer. When you are old and gray and full of sleep. Pink was born in Doylestown, Pennsylvania, the daughter of Judy, a nurse, and James Moore, Jr. Or even when it started. One of the top signs a shy guy likes you is him going out of his way to protect you. Visitation Academy, an all-girls Catholic school, hosted its 48th Annual Safari Dinner and Auction on Feb. The Vatican's Secret Life. So, to help you sort out your true feelings and find out if you're actually in love, or if it's simply a big 'ol crush, take this quiz to help you determine what's really going on. She was part of a group of women that filled the role of mothers to these first priests—keeping them fed, praying for them. Single-sex education, also known as single-gender education and gender-isolated education, is the practice of conducting education with male and female students attending separate classes, perhaps in separate buildings or schools. Three Choices for Priests in Love If a priest falls in love, he has three choices for his future lifestyle: 1) The Celibate Way: Keeping his sexual urges under control and unexpressed. I’ve learned a few lessons from my experiences in this “modern family. The Outsiders. A strong feeling of affection and concern toward another person, as that arising from kinship or close friendship. Jan 02, 2019 · Women detail alleged abuse by nuns 05:16. Married to @phillawler. marriage rate has declined, divorce rates have increased among older Americans. are gathering Wednesday for a weeklong retreat on the clergy sex abuse crisis at a seminary near Chicago. like the other posts. The woman was pregnant and tired. The Endorsement. I turned to a middle aged woman sitting next to me and said, "Poor. A relationship is a connection between two individuals. 1 - Dating in the US Versus Dating in France. “First best is falling in love. Danny 16 August 2021 Reply. August 2 at 1:08 PM ·. For the most part, this dream is about healthy connections with females in your life.

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Hannibal Lecter

Character created by Thomas Harris

This article is about the character. For the franchise, see Hannibal Lecter (franchise).

Dr. Hannibal Lecter is a fictional character created by novelist Thomas Harris. Lecter is a serial killer who eats his victims. Before his capture, he was a respected forensic psychiatrist; after his incarceration, he is consulted by FBI agents Will Graham and Clarice Starling to help them find other serial killers.

Lecter first appeared in a small role as a villain in Harris' 1981 thriller novel Red Dragon. The novel was adapted into the film Manhunter (1986), with Brian Cox as Lecter (spelled "Lecktor"). Lecter had a larger role in The Silence of the Lambs (1988); the 1991 film adaptation starred Anthony Hopkins as Lecter, for which he won the Academy Award for Best Actor. Hopkins reprised the role for the 2001 adaptation of the 1999 novel Hannibal, which sees Lecter evading recapture, and for a second adaptation of Red Dragon in 2002.

The fourth novel, Hannibal Rising (2006), explores Lecter's childhood and development into a serial killer. He was played in the 2007 film adaptation by Gaspard Ulliel. In the NBC television series Hannibal (20132015), which focuses on Lecter's relationship with Graham, Lecter was played by Mads Mikkelsen, who won the Saturn Award for Best Actor on Television for his performance.

In 2003, Lecter, as portrayed by Hopkins, was named the greatest villain in American cinema by the American Film Institute.[1] In 2010, Entertainment Weekly named him one of the 100 greatest characters of the preceding 20 years.[2] In 2019, Lecter, as portrayed by Mikkelsen, was named the 18th greatest villain in television history by Rolling Stone.[3]

Inspiration[edit]

Convicted murderer Dr. Alfredo Ballí Treviño, the real-life inspiration for Lecter

Working as a journalist for Argosy in the 1960s, Thomas Harris interviewed mental patient Dykes Askew Simmons, who was on death row in Nuevo León State Prison, Monterrey, for killing three people. Simmons had been shot by a prison guard and treated by a skilled prison doctor whom Harris referred to as "Dr. Salazar". Harris interviewed Salazar, who spoke about Askew's facial disfigurements, his victims' physical attractiveness, and the nature of torment. Harris described him as a "small, lithe man with dark red hair" who "stood very still" with "a certain elegance about him". The prison guard later told Harris that Salazar was a murderer who could "package his victim in a surprisingly small box".[4] Salazar inspired Harris to create a character with a "peculiar understanding of the criminal mind".[4]

Salazar is believed to be Alfredo Ballí Treviño, the last criminal to be condemned to death in Mexico, in 1959.[4] Ballí was a physician from an upper-class Monterrey family who murdered his friend and lover Jesus Castillo Rangel and mutilated his body. He was also suspected of killing and dismembering several hitchhikers in the countryside during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Harris also incorporated some of these details into Buffalo Bill's development as a killer in The Silence of the Lambs. Ballí's sentence was commuted to 20 years and he was released in 1981. After his release, Ballí continued working as a physician in an austere office until his death in 2009.[5][6][7]

In her book Evil Serial Killers, Charlotte Greig asserts Lecter was inspired at least in part by the serial killer Albert Fish.[8] Greig also states that, to explain Lecter's pathology, Harris borrowed the possibly apocryphal story of serial killer and cannibal Andrei Chikatilo's brother Stepan being kidnapped and eaten by starving neighbors.[9] The location of the book Hannibal was inspired by the Monster of Florence. While preparing the book, Harris traveled to Italy and was present at the trial of the main suspect, Pietro Pacciani, where he was seen taking notes.[10]

Character[edit]

Hannibal Lecter is a cannibalisticserial killer. He is highly intelligent and cultured, with refined tastes and impeccable manners. He is deeply offended by rudeness, and often kills people who exhibit bad manners; according to the novel Hannibal, he "prefers to eat the rude".[11] Hopkins described Lecter as the "Robin Hood of killers", who kills "the terminally rude".[12]

In the novel Red Dragon, protagonist Will Graham says that psychologists refer to Lecter as a sociopath "because they don't know what else to call him". Graham claims that "he has no remorse or guilt at all", and tortured animals as a child, but he does not exhibit any of the other criteria traditionally associated with sociopathy. Asked how he himself would describe Lecter, Graham responds, "he's a monster", implying that Lecter's mind is somehow "incomplete" in the same way that some babies are born with missing limbs or non-functioning organs.[13]

In The Silence of the Lambs, Lecter's keeper, Dr. Frederick Chilton, claims that Lecter is a "pure sociopath" ("pure psychopath" in the film adaptation). In the film adaptation of The Silence of the Lambs, protagonist Clarice Starling says of Lecter, "They don’t have a name for what he is."

Lecter's pathology is explored in greater detail in Hannibal and Hannibal Rising, which explains that he was traumatized as a child in Lithuania in 1944 when he witnessed his beloved sister, Mischa, being murdered and cannibalized by a group of deserting LithuanianHilfswillige, one of whom claimed that Lecter unwittingly ate his sister as well.

All media in which Lecter appears portray him as intellectually brilliant, cultured and sophisticated, with refined tastes in art, music and cuisine. He is frequently depicted preparing gourmet meals from his victims' flesh, the most famous example being his admission that he once ate a census taker's liver "with some fava beans and a nice Chianti" (a "big Amarone" in the novel). Prior to his capture and imprisonment, he was a member of Baltimore, Maryland's social elite, and a sitting member of the Baltimore Philharmonic Orchestra's Board of Directors.

In The Silence of the Lambs, Lecter is described through Starling's eyes: "She could see that he was small, sleek; in his hands and arms she saw wiry strength like her own." The novel also reveals that Lecter's left hand has a rare condition called mid-ray duplication polydactyly, i.e. a duplicated middle finger.[14] In Hannibal, he performs plastic surgery on his own face on several occasions, and removes his extra digit. Lecter's eyes are a shade of maroon, and reflect the light in "pinpoints of red".[15] He has small white teeth[16] and dark, slicked-back hair with a widow's peak. He also has a keen sense of smell; in Red Dragon, he immediately recognizes Will Graham by his brand of aftershave, and in The Silence of the Lambs, he is able to identify through a plexiglass window with small holes the brand of perfume that Starling wore the day before. He has an eidetic memory with which he has constructed in his mind an elaborate "memory palace" with which he relives memories and sensations in rich detail.

Anthony Hopkins, the actor most closely identified with the character, said he played Lecter as "ultra sane, very still ... He has such terrifying physical power, and he doesn't waste an ounce of energy. He's so contained. He’s all brain."[17] His performance was inspired by HAL 9000 from Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey. Critic Roger Ebert elaborated on this comparison: "He is a dispassionate, brilliant machine, superb at logic, deficient in emotions."[18]

In the same essay, Ebert theorized:

One key to the film's appeal is that audiences like Hannibal Lecter...He may be a cannibal, but as a dinner party guest he would give value for money (if he didn't eat you). He does not bore, he likes to amuse, he has his standards, and he is the smartest person in the movie...He bears comparison, indeed, with such other movie monsters as Nosferatu, Frankenstein...King Kong and Norman Bates. They have two things in common: They behave according to their natures, and they are misunderstood. Nothing that these monsters do is "evil" in any conventional moral sense, because they lack any moral sense. They are hard-wired to do what they do. They have no choice. In the areas where they do have choice, they try to do the right thing.[19]

According to The Guardian, before The Silence of the Lambs, films portrayed psychopathic killers as "claw-handed bogeymen with melty faces and rubber masks. By contrast, Lecter was highly intelligent with impeccable manners."[11]

Appearances[edit]

Novels[edit]

Red Dragon[edit]

In the backstory of the 1981 novel Red Dragon, FBI profiler Will Graham interviews Lecter about one of his patients who was murdered by a serial killer, before intuiting that Lecter is the culprit; he sees the antique medical diagram "Wound Man" in Lecter’s office, and remembers that the victim suffered the same injuries depicted in the drawing. Realizing that Graham is on to him, Lecter creeps up behind Graham and stabs him with a linoleum knife, nearly disemboweling him.

Graham survives, but is so traumatized by the incident that he takes early retirement from the FBI. Lecter is charged with a series of nine murders, but is found not guilty by reason of insanity. He is institutionalized in the Baltimore State Hospital for the Criminally Insane under the care of Dr. Frederick Chilton, a pompous, incompetent psychiatrist whom he despises, and who subjects him to a series of petty cruelties.

Some years later, Graham comes out of retirement and consults Lecter in order to catch another serial killer, Francis Dolarhyde, known by the nickname "the Tooth Fairy". Through the classifieds of a tabloid called The National Tattler, Lecter provides Dolarhyde with Graham's home address; Dolarhyde later uses this information to break into Graham’s home, stab him in the face, and threaten his family before Graham’s wife Molly shoots him dead. At the end of the novel, Lecter sends Graham a letter, saying that he hopes Graham "won’t be very ugly".

The Silence of the Lambs[edit]

In the 1988 sequel The Silence of the Lambs, Lecter assists FBI agent-in-training Clarice Starling in catching a serial killer, Jame Gumb, known by the nickname "Buffalo Bill". Lecter is fascinated by Starling, and they form an unusual relationship in which he provides her with a profile of the killer and his modus operandi in exchange for details about her unhappy childhood.

Lecter had previously met Gumb, the former lover of his patient (and eventual victim) Benjamin Raspail. He does not reveal this information directly, instead giving Starling vague clues to help her figure it out for herself. In return for Lecter's assistance, the FBI and Chilton arrange for him to be transferred to a federal institution with better living conditions.

Lecter escapes while in transit, however, killing and mutilating his guards and using one of their faces as a mask to fool police and paramedics before killing the latter and escaping. While in hiding, he writes one letter to Starling wishing her well, a second to Barney (his primary orderly at the asylum), thanking him for his courteous treatment, and a third to Chilton, promising gruesome revenge; Chilton disappears soon afterward.

Hannibal[edit]

In the third novel, 1999's Hannibal, Lecter lives in a palazzo in Florence, Italy, and works as a museum curator under the alias "Dr. Fell". One of Lecter’s two surviving victims, Mason Verger—a wealthy, sadisticpedophile whom Lecter had brutalized during a court-ordered therapy session, leaving him a horrifically disfigured quadriplegic—offers a huge reward for anyone who apprehends Lecter, whom he intends to feed to wild boars specially bred for the purpose.

Verger enlists the help of Rinaldo Pazzi, a disgraced Italian police inspector, and Paul Krendler, a corrupt Justice Department official and Starling's boss. Lecter kills Pazzi and returns to the United States to escape Verger's Sardinian henchmen, only to be captured. Starling follows them, intent on apprehending Lecter personally, and is injured in a gunfight with Verger's henchmen. Lecter escapes, thanks to Starling's help, and persuades Verger's younger sister Margot—his former patient, whom Verger had molested and raped years earlier—to kill her brother, promising to take the blame.

Lecter rescues the wounded Starling and takes her to his rented house on the Chesapeake shore to treat her, subjecting her to a regimen of psychoactive drugs in the course of therapy sessions to help her heal from her childhood trauma and her pent-up anger at the injustices of the world. He considers whether his long-dead younger sister Mischa may somehow be able to live again through Starling. One day, he invites her to a formal dinner where the guest and first course is Krendler, whose brain they consume together. On this night, Starling refuses to let her personality be subsumed, telling Lecter that Mischa's memory can live within him. She then offers him her breast, and they become lovers.

Three years later, former orderly Barney, who had treated Lecter with respect while he was incarcerated in Baltimore, sees Lecter and Starling entering the Teatro Colón opera house in Buenos Aires. Fearing for his life, Barney leaves Buenos Aires immediately, never to return.

The reader then learns that Lecter and Starling are living together in an "exquisite" Beaux Arts mansion, where they employ servants and engage in activities such as learning new languages and dancing together and building their own respective memory palaces, and is told that "Sex is a splendid structure they add to every day", that the psychoactive drugs "have had no part in their lives for a long time", and that Lecter is "satisfied" with the fact that Mischa cannot return.

Hannibal Rising[edit]

Harris wrote a 2006 prequel, Hannibal Rising, after film producer Dino De Laurentiis (who owned the cinematic rights to the Lecter character) announced an intended film project depicting Lecter's childhood and development into a serial killer with or without Harris' help. Harris would also write the film's screenplay.

The novel chronicles Lecter's early life, from his birth into an aristocratic family in Lithuania in 1933, to being orphaned, along with his beloved younger sister Mischa, in 1944 when a Nazi Stuka bomber attacks a Soviet tank in front of their forest hideaway. Shortly thereafter, he and Mischa are captured by a band of Nazi collaborators, who murder and cannibalize Mischa before her brother's eyes; Lecter later learns that the collaborators also fed him Mischa's remains.

Irreparably traumatized, Lecter escapes from the deserters and wanders through the forest, dazed and unable to speak. He is found and taken back to his family's old castle, which had been converted into a Soviet orphanage, where he is bullied by the other children and abused by the dean.

He is adopted by his uncle Robert and Robert's Japanese wife, Lady Murasaki, who nurses him back to health and teaches him to speak again. Robert dies shortly after adopting Lecter, who forms a close, pseudo-romantic relationship with Murasaki. During this time he also shows great intellectual aptitude, entering medical school at a young age and distinguishing himself.

Despite his seemingly comfortable life, Lecter is consumed by a savage obsession with avenging Mischa's death. He kills for the first time as a teenager, beheading a racist fishmonger who insulted Murasaki. He then methodically tracks down, tortures, and murders each of the men who had killed his sister. In the process of taking his revenge, he forsakes his relationship with Murasaki and seemingly loses all traces of his humanity. The novel ends with Lecter being accepted to Johns Hopkins Hospital.

In film[edit]

Main article: Hannibal Lecter (franchise)

Anthony Hopkins as Lecter in The Silence of the Lambs

Red Dragon was first adapted to film in 1986 as the Michael Mann film Manhunter, although the spelling of Lecter's name was changed to "Lecktor". He was played by actor Brian Cox.[20] Cox based his performance on Scottish serial killer Peter Manuel.[21]

In 1991, Orion Pictures produced a Jonathan Demme-directed adaptation of The Silence of the Lambs, in which Lecter was played by actor Anthony Hopkins. Hopkins' Academy Award-winning performance made Lecter into a cultural icon. In 2001, Hannibal was adapted to film, with Hopkins reprising his role. In the film adaptation, the ending is revised: Starling attempts to apprehend Lecter, who escapes after cutting off his own hand to free himself from her handcuffs. In 2002, Red Dragon was adapted again, this time under its original title, with Hopkins again as Lecter and Edward Norton as Will Graham. Hopkins wrote a screenplay for another sequel, ending with Starling killing Lecter.[22] In 2016, Hopkins said, "I made the mistake of doing two more [Hannibal Lecter movies] and I should have only done one."[23]

In late 2006, the novel Hannibal Rising was adapted into a film, which portrayed Lecter's development into a serial killer. In the film, which was finished by 2007, eight-year-old Lecter is portrayed by Aaran Thomas, while Gaspard Ulliel portrays him as a young man. Both the novel and film, as well as Ulliel’s performance as Lecter, received generally negative reviews.[24]

In television[edit]

Main article: Hannibal (TV series)

Mads Mikkelsen portrayed Hannibal for the television series.

In February 2012, NBC gave a series order to Hannibal, a television adaptation of Red Dragon to be written and executive-produced by Bryan Fuller.[25]Mads Mikkelsen plays Lecter,[26] opposite Hugh Dancy as Will Graham.[27]

Fuller commented on Mikkelsen's version of Lecter:

"What I love about Mads' approach to the character is that, in our first meeting, he was adamant that he didn't want to do Hopkins or Cox. He talked about the character not so much as 'Hannibal Lecter the cannibal psychiatrist', but as Satan – this fallen angel who's enamoured with mankind and had an affinity for who we are as people, but was definitely not among us – he was other. I thought that was a really cool, interesting approach, because I love science fiction and horror and – not that we'd ever do anything deliberately to suggest this – but having it subtextually play as him being Lucifer felt like a really interesting kink to the series. It was slightly different than anything that's been done before and it also gives it a slightly more epic quality if you watch the show through the prism of, 'This is Satan at work, tempting someone with the apple of their psyche'. It appealed to all of those genre things that get me excited about any sort of entertainment."[28]

Season 1[edit]

The first season amends the series' continuity so that Graham and Lecter first work together during the hunt for Garrett Jacob Hobbs (Vladimir Jon Cubrt), the "Minnesota Shrike", a serial killer who preys on college girls. During the investigation, Lecter secretly calls Hobbs to tip him off that Graham is on to him, just to see what Hobbs will do. As a result, Hobbs turns on his own family, killing his wife and trying to kill his daughter Abigail (Kacey Rohl) as Graham charges in and shoots him dead.[29] Killing Hobbs weighs on Graham's conscience and gives him nightmares, so his boss Jack Crawford (Laurence Fishburne) sends him to Lecter for counseling.[30] Throughout the first season, Lecter acts as Graham's unofficial psychiatrist, and they form a tenuous friendship. Lecter and Graham also become father figures to Abigail, and cover for her when they discover that she was her father's unwilling accomplice.

Lecter is fascinated by Graham's ability to empathize with psychopaths, and he spends much of the series trying to undermine Graham's fragile sanity and push him into becoming a killer. To this end, Lecter prevents Graham from learning that he has advanced encephalitis, just to see how Graham would function under the circumstances.[31] In the first season finale, Lecter reluctantly frames Graham for a series of murders that he himself committed throughout the season – including, apparently, Abigail's – but not before Graham realizes that Lecter is the "Chesapeake Ripper", the very serial killer he has been trying to catch.[32]

Season 2[edit]

Throughout the beginning of the second season, Graham, who is now institutionalized, attempts to convince his skeptical former colleagues that Lecter is the real killer and begins pulling strings from within his cell in order to expose him. Meanwhile, Lecter begins to manipulate evidence from the outside, exonerating himself after the FBI's initial investigations into Graham's claims. Eventually, Graham persuades his friend and colleague Beverly Katz (Hettienne Park), a forensic scientist, to investigate Lecter in exchange for help on a case. She breaks into Lecter's house, where she finds evidence of his guilt. Lecter catches her, however, and kills her; he then sections her body vertically and displays it in tableau. Angry and vengeful, Graham convinces psychotic hospital orderly Matthew Brown (Jonathan Tucker) to try to kill Lecter, but Crawford comes to Lecter's rescue in time.[33] Lecter retaliates by taking as his lover Alana Bloom (Caroline Dhavernas), a psychologist for whom Graham has romantic feelings.[33] Lecter then exonerates Graham by planting forensic evidence of Graham's alleged victims at the scene of one of his own murders, resulting in Graham's release. He also frames his colleague Frederick Chilton (Raúl Esparza) by planting a mutilated corpse in his house and "influencing" his surviving victim Miriam Lass (Anna Chlumsky) into believing that Chilton had abducted and tortured her.[33]

Graham resumes therapy with Lecter as an attempt to entrap him. Lecter becomes aware of the ruse, but is fascinated by the experience and allows it to continue in an attempt to examine his connection with Graham. In an attempt to push Graham into becoming a killer, Lecter sends his psychotic former patient Randall Tier (Mark O'Brien) after him, and Graham kills and mutilates Tier – just as Lecter hoped he would.[34] Later, Graham attacks tabloid reporter Fredericka "Freddy" Lounds (Lara Jean Chorostecki), who is investigating him and Lecter. Graham shares a meal with Lecter of what is implied to be her flesh, but it is soon revealed that Lounds is still alive and conspiring with Graham and Crawford to draw Lecter into their trap.[35]

Lecter and Graham acquire a common enemy in Mason Verger (Michael Pitt), a wealthy sadist whom they both despise for emotionally and sexually abusing his twin sister, and Lecter’s patient, Margot (Katharine Isabelle). Verger briefly enters therapy with Lecter to find out what Margot is saying about him, but soon kidnaps Lecter and Graham, intent on feeding them both to his prize pigs. They both escape, however, and Lecter takes Verger hostage in Graham's house. Lecter gives Mason a hallucinogenic drug cocktail, and tells him to cut off pieces of his own face and feed them to Graham's dogs. With Graham's tacit approval, Lecter then breaks Verger's neck with his bare hands, paralyzing him from the neck down.[36]

In the second-season finale, Crawford arrives at Lecter's house to arrest him. In the ensuing struggle, Lecter seriously injures Crawford, while a very much alive Abigail Hobbs pushes Bloom out of a window. Lecter then stabs Graham and cuts Abigail's throat in front of him, and flees before the police arrive. He is shown in a post-credits scene aboard a flight to France with his psychiatrist, Bedelia Du Maurier (Gillian Anderson).[37]

Season 3[edit]

The third season amends the series' continuity to incorporate events from the novels Red Dragon and Hannibal. It also changes Lecter's origin story: in this continuity, Lecter's sister Mischa was murdered, cannibalized, and fed to him by a peasant in his native Lithuania; Lecter eventually made the peasant his prisoner in his ancestral home.[38] Certain episodes also suggest that, in his youth, Lecter was the unidentified serial killer known as the "Monster of Florence".[39]

Months after his escape, Lecter is living in Florence with Du Maurier, working as a museum curator under the alias "Dr. Fell" – having murdered the original curator and stolen his identity.[40] Disgraced Italian detective Rinaldo Pazzi (Fortunato Cerlino) tries to apprehend him to collect a bounty placed by Mason Verger (Joe Anderson), who is also consulting with Bloom to capture Lecter. Lecter kills Pazzi and tries to flee the country, but is accosted by Crawford, who engages him in brutal hand-to-hand combat. Meanwhile, Graham goes looking for Lecter with the help of the doctor's family servant Chiyoh (Tao Okamoto), traveling to his adversary's home country to find out more about him.[41]

Lecter manages to escape from Crawford and meet up with Graham when he arrives in Italy again. Graham makes peace with Lecter before pulling a knife on him, but Chiyoh shoots and wounds Graham. Lecter takes Graham back to his villa and tries to perform a craniotomy on him in front of Crawford, but is interrupted by Italian detectives on Mason’s payroll, who deliver them both to his estate in Maryland.[42] Mason’s physician Cordell Doemling (Glenn Fleshler) tells Lecter that he will mutilate him until he dies, and prepare gourmet cuisine from his flesh for Mason to eat. Bloom frees Lecter, who suggests that Margot kill her brother, promising to take the blame. Lecter then kills Doemling, who is about to surgically remove Graham's face and graft it onto Mason's, and later instructs Margot and Bloom on how to "milk" the unconscious Mason's prostate to give Margot the sperm she needs to conceive a child and thus inherit the Verger family fortune. After Margot kills her brother, Lecter carries the wounded and unconscious Graham to the latter's house. When Graham wakes up, he allows Lecter to escape, claiming that he never wants to see him again. To spite Graham, Lecter surrenders to Crawford later that evening and is taken into custody.[43]

Lecter is found insane at his trial, and incarcerated in the Baltimore Hospital for the Criminally Insane, under Chilton and Bloom's care. Three years later, Graham visits him at the hospital to ask for help in profiling a serial killer dubbed "the Tooth Fairy", who murders entire families.[44] Lecter begins communicating with the killer, Francis Dolarhyde (Richard Armitage), and gives him Graham's home address. Dolarhyde attacks and wounds Graham's wife, Molly (Nina Arianda). Bloom and Crawford threaten to take away Lecter's hospital privileges unless he lets them listen in on his conversations with Dolarhyde. Lecter complies, but then suddenly tells Dolarhyde they are listening. Bloom punishes him by taking away his books and toilet seat, and confining him in a straitjacket and muzzle.[45] Graham, in an attempt to make Dolarhyde come out of hiding, gives an interview with Chilton and Lounds in which he describes "the Tooth Fairy" as ugly, impotent, and a product of incest. Dolarhyde, enraged by the "bad review", abducts, burns and disfigures Chilton, and sends Lecter Chilton's severed lips, one of which Lecter eats.[46]

In the series finale, "The Wrath of the Lamb", Lecter and Graham develop a plan to catch Dolarhyde, using Lecter as bait. Lecter goes with Graham on a police convoy, to be transferred to another facility in order to eventually draw the killer out. However, Graham has made a deal with Dolarhyde to free Lecter, and Dolarhyde attacks the convoy, killing the guards and letting Lecter and Graham live. Lecter then takes Graham to a secluded clifftop cottage where he previously held Abigail Hobbs and Miriam Lass. Dolarhyde tracks them down and attacks them, shooting Lecter in the back and stabbing Graham in the face. Though they are both badly wounded, Lecter and Graham manage to get the better of Dolarhyde and kill him together: Graham slices open Dolarhyde's chest, while Lecter tears out his throat with his teeth. Lecter and Graham then embrace, before Graham pushes them both off a cliff. Their ultimate fate is left ambiguous; a post-credits scene shows Du Maurier dining on her own leg at a table set for three.[47] Series creator Bryan Fuller has said this scene is meant to suggest that Lecter and Graham survived and that Graham has become Lecter's partner in murder. Fuller has stated that Season 4 would have depicted Lecter and Graham on the run from the FBI in Argentina, mirroring Lecter and Starling's storyline from the novels.[48]

Relationship between Graham and Lecter[edit]

The emotional relationship between Graham and Lecter forms the foundation of the series. In season 3, their developing romance has been taken from subtext into text.[46] As to whether it was a part of the initial plan to portray their relationship as romantic, Fuller stated: "No, it naturally evolved because I guess I was absorbing so much of Mads and Hugh's performance, which felt like it was growing in intimacy, and it would have been inauthentic not to address it. Because all of these characters, and particularly Bedelia, was able to call out what she had witnessed [between Lecter and Graham], it seemed like a natural conclusion. I remember when I turned in the rewrite pages where Will asks Bedelia if Hannibal is in love with him, I got a note from Don Mancini, one of our writers who was always pushing for more homosexual text – not just context or subtext but text, text, text – and he was like, "I'm so glad you put that in there! They said it! They said it!" [49]

Discussing what motivated him to verbally acknowledge the romance between Graham and Lecter, Fuller said, "It felt like we had to shit or get off the pot, ultimately, because there had been so much going on between these two men that when Will asks, "Is Hannibal Lecter in love with me?" it is very much about death and the romance between these two men. There is a quality to connections that go above and beyond sexuality. You can have this intimate connection with somebody that then causes you to wonder where the lines of your own sexuality are. And we didn't quite broach the sexuality. It was certainly suggested, but the love is absolutely on the table."[50]

Remembering how the song for the finale of the series – "Love Crime" by Siouxsie Sioux – was created, Fuller said: "It was interesting. She [Siouxsie Sioux] was like, "I want to write this song, and what are the things I should really be thinking about?" And I was like, 'this is a love story. A love story between a full-fledged psychopath and someone who has nascent psychopathic abilities.' Actually, Hannibal Lecter is not a psychopath; he's something else entirely. But it's a love relationship between two men: one of them is a cannibal, and one of them understands those cannibalistic instincts all too well."[51]

In other media[edit]

Lecter is the subject of the 1998 song "Hannibal (Se) Lectah" by The Skalatones.[52]

Lecter is parodied in the 2005 musicalSilence! The Musical, with the character being originated by actor Brent Barrett.[53]

Lecter was depicted by Epic Rap Battles of History in the episode "Jack the Ripper Vs. Hannibal Lecter", in which Lecter (Lloyd Ahlquist) raps against Jack the Ripper (Dan Bull).[54]

Lecter is often mentioned in songs by Detroit rapper Eminem such as "Medicine Ball" and "Underground". In the music video for "You Don't Know", he references Lecter by wearing the character's iconic straightjacket and muzzle, and making lip-licking noises.

Reception and legacy[edit]

In 2003, Lecter (as portrayed by Hopkins) was named the greatest villain in American cinema by the American Film Institute.[1] In 2010, Entertainment Weekly named him one of the 100 greatest characters of the preceding 20 years.[2] In 2019, Lecter (as portrayed by Mikkelsen) was named the 18th greatest villain in television history by Rolling Stone.[3]

His line, "A census taker once tried to test me; I ate his liver with some fava beans and a nice Chianti", was voted the 21st greatest movie quote of American cinema by the American Film Institute.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ ab"AFI's 100 Heroes & Villains". American Film Institute. June 2003. Retrieved 2007-02-12.
  2. ^ abVary, Adam B. (June 1, 2010). "The 100 Greatest Characters of the Last 20 Years: Here's our full list!". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved July 7, 2012.
  3. ^ ab"40 Greatest TV Villains of All Time". September 4, 2019. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
  4. ^ abcValdez, Maria G. (July 29, 2013). "Thomas Harris, 'Silence Of The Lambs' Author, Reveals Hannibal Lecter Was Inspired By Real Life Mexican Doctor". Latin Times. Retrieved November 12, 2020.
  5. ^Osorno, Diego Enrique (July 29, 2013). "Hannibal Lecter es de Monterrey". VICE (in Spanish). Mexico City, Mexico: Vice Media Mexico. Retrieved July 22, 2018.
  6. ^Bacchi, Umberto (July 31, 2013). "Real Hannibal Lecter was Murderous Gay Mexican Doctor Alfredo Ballí Treviño". International Business Times. New York City: Newsweek Media Group. Retrieved July 22, 2018.
  7. ^Valdez, Maria G. (July 30, 2013). "Who Was The Real Hannibal Lecter?". Latin Times. New York City: Newsweek Media Group. Retrieved July 22, 2018.
  8. ^Grieg, Charlotte (2009). Evil Serial Killers: In the Minds of Monsters. London, England: Arcturus Publishing. p. 27. ISBN .
  9. ^Grieg, pg. 102
  10. ^Preston, Douglas (July–August 2006). "The Monster of Florence". The Atlantic. Boston, Massachusetts: Emerson Collective. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
  11. ^ abClarke, Cath (October 13, 2017). "An old friend for dinner ... why we're not scared of Hannibal Lecter any more". The Guardian. London, England. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved November 17, 2020.
  12. ^Rose, Charlie (30 January 2001). "60 Minutes: Actors' Take On Ridley Scott". CBS News. Retrieved 8 June 2007.
  13. ^Harris, Thomas (1988). Red Dragon. New York City: G.P. Putnam’s Sons. p. 67.
  14. ^Harris, Thomas (1988). Silence of the Lambs. New York City: St. Martin's Press. p. 15. ISBN .
  15. ^Harris, Thomas (1988). Silence of the Lambs. New York City: St. Martin's Press. p. 16. ISBN .
  16. ^Harris, Thomas (1988). Silence of the Lambs. New York City: St. Martin's Press. p. 17. ISBN .
  17. ^Berkeman, Meredith (March 29, 1991). "Playing Hannibal Lecter". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved November 17, 2020.
  18. ^Ebert, Roger (2003). The Great Movies. New York City: Broadway Books. p. 418. ISBN .
  19. ^Ebert, pg. 419
  20. ^Cox, Brian (March 10, 2009). "Brian Cox: Interview (Manhunter)". Wogan Now and Then (Interview). Interviewed by Terry Wogan. London, England: BBC.
  21. ^Mottram, James (January 20, 2011). "Manhunter". Total Film. Bath, England: Future Publishing (177): 112–116.
  22. ^Oldenburg, Ann (October 3, 2002). "Marquee names serve up another helping of Hannibal". USA Today. McLean, Virginia: Gannett. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
  23. ^Hibberd, James (December 7, 2016). "'Westworld' Finale: Anthony Hopkins on Dr. Ford's Fate". Entertainment Weekly. New York City: Time, inc,. Retrieved November 12, 2020.
  24. ^Hannibal Rising at Rotten Tomatoes
  25. ^Abrams, Natalie (February 14, 2012). "Pilot Season: NBC Orders Hannibal Straight to Series; Also Picks Up Notorious". TV Guide. New York City: NTVB Media. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
  26. ^Hibberd, James (June 4, 2012). "NBC casts Bond villain as Hannibal Lecter". Entertainment Weekly. New York City: Meredith Corporation. Retrieved July 23, 2018.
  27. ^Jeffrey, Morgan (March 23, 2012). "Hannibal Lecter TV series casts Hugh Dancy as Will Graham". Digital Spy. London, England: Hearst Magazines UK. Retrieved July 23, 2018.
  28. ^Jeffery, Morgan (May 3, 2013). "Bryan Fuller 'Hannibal' Q&A: 'Lecter is like Satan at work'". Digital Spy. London, England: Hearst Magazines UK. Retrieved May 11, 2013.
  29. ^"Apéritif". Hannibal. Season 1. Episode 1. April 4, 2013. NBC.
  30. ^"Amuse-Bouche". Hannibal. Season 1. Episode 2. April 11, 2013. NBC.
  31. ^"Buffet Froid". Hannibal. Season 1. Episode 10. May 20, 2013. NBC.
  32. ^"Savoreaux". Hannibal. Season 1. Episode 13. June 20, 2013. NBC.
  33. ^ abc"Mukōzuke". Hannibal. Season 2. Episode 5. March 28, 2014. NBC.
  34. ^"Shiizakana". Hannibal. Season 2. Episode 9. April 25, 2014. NBC.
  35. ^"Naka-Choko". Hannibal. Season 2. Episode 10. May 2, 2014. NBC.
  36. ^"Tome-Wan". Hannibal. Season 2. Episode 12. May 16, 2014. NBC.
  37. ^"Mizumono". Hannibal. Season 2. Episode 13. May 23, 2014. NBC.
  38. ^"Secondo". Hannibal. Season 3. Episode 3. June 3, 2015. NBC.
  39. ^"Primavera". Hannibal. Season 3. Episode 2. June 11, 2015. NBC.
  40. ^"Antipasto". Hannibal. Season 3. Episode 1. June 4, 2015. NBC.
  41. ^"Contorno". Hannibal. Season 3. Episode 6. July 9, 2015. NBC.
  42. ^"Dolce". Hannibal. Season 3. Episode 6. July 9, 2015. NBC.
  43. ^"Digestivo". Hannibal. Season 3. Episode 7. July 18, 2015. NBC.
  44. ^"The Great Red Dragon". Hannibal. Season 3. Episode 8. July 25, 2015. NBC.
  45. ^"...And the Beast From the Sea". Hannibal. Season 3. Episode 11. August 15, 2015. NBC.
  46. ^ ab"The Number of the Beast is 666...". Hannibal. Season 3. Episode 12. August 22, 2015. NBC.
  47. ^"The Wrath of the Lamb". Hannibal. Season 3. Episode 13. August 29, 2015. NBC.
  48. ^Bryant, Adam (August 29, 2015). "Hannibal Boss on the Finale: "If the Audience Is Done, Then I Will Be Done"". TV Guide. New York City: NTVB Media. Retrieved July 23, 2018.
  49. ^Dibdin, Emma (6 September 2015). "Hannibal: Bryan Fuller talks season 4, sexual fluidity, and how Will became Clarice Starling". Digital Spy. London, England: Hearst Magazines UK. Retrieved 7 August 2017.
  50. ^Slezak, Michael (August 2015). "Hannibal Finale Post Mortem: Bryan Fuller on Will/Lecter Love, Bedelia's Last Supper, That Siouxsie Sioux Jam". TV Line. Retrieved August 7, 2017.
  51. ^Sepinwall, Alan (August 29, 2015). "Hannibal's creator explains that dark, twisted and… romantic(?) series finale". UPROXX. Retrieved August 7, 2017.
  52. ^The Best Tracks so Far (Pork Pie, 1998).
  53. ^Blank, Matthew (June 5, 2011). "PHOTO CALL: Brent Barrett and Jenn Harris in Silence! The Musical". Playbill. Archived from the original on June 20, 2020. Retrieved June 20, 2020.
  54. ^Barkan, Jonathan (December 1, 2014). "Jack The Ripper Vs. Hannibal Lecter!". Bloody Disgusting. Archived from the original on June 20, 2020. Retrieved June 20, 2020.

External links[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hannibal_Lecter

Anthony quotes bryan

Thank god that’s over. Before turning the corner for the Steelers’ 2020 stretch run, let’s take one more look at the longest week in NFL history—as told by the players (and some commentators).


“NFL suspends Steelers roster for breaking coronavirus protocol by playing Ravens”

— The Onion

Photo by Joe Sargent/Getty Images

Admit it, you wondered for a second if this headline was legit.


“The better team didn’t win today”

— James Jones (NFL Network)

Photo by Jonathan Daniel/Getty Images

Far too much of the post-game chatter Wednesday night lionized Baltimore for their “heroic” performance in the loss. And I’m calling B.S. on that.

Maybe some can forget that the Ravens’ organization is at fault for their own roster-purge, that the endless postponements allowed Baltimore to reactivate players who shouldn’t have been available, and that the league appeased the Ravens with an extra day of practice so they wouldn’t hurt themselves. I can’t, but if you can convince yourself those things don’t matter, you might be struck by the Ravens’ huge number of COVID reserves (14!). That is, until you realize most of those were backups.

Of their regulars, the Ravens were missing six, while the Steelers were short by three—and even that is a little misleading. Both teams played without their starting center and a star defensive lineman. Pittsburgh was also down by their leading rusher, James Conner, while Baltimore had their top two runners (Dobbins and Ingram) back by gametime, but chose not to start them because they never lost Gus Edwards—their top rusher vs. the Steelers over the last two years.

You could claim (and many did) that Lamar Jackson’s absence was a huge loss for the Ravens—but have you seen Jackson play the Steelers? His two worst career games are his only two starts against Pittsburgh. If anything, the Ravens were lucky he didn’t sustain the emotional trauma of getting blown up by the Steelers again.

That left Baltimore without WR Willie Snead, TE Mark Andrews, and LB Pernell McPhee (Matthew Judon was also on the COVID list, but he was already on the injury report for his ankle). A net of three meaningful absences over the opponent is hardly a devastating blow during a season like this.

So what part of Baltimore’s effort was heroic? Was it their offense, which managed only 219 yards all game—a full third of which came on one blown coverage? Those guys were worse than advertised (see below). How about their defense? It’s true, that unit didn’t roll over, but why would they? They were only short a couple of pieces, and none from the secondary (lucky break against a passing team like Pittsburgh). Instead, Jimmy Smith, Marlon Humphry, and Marcus Peters got burned for 266 passing yards on a day that Steelers receivers dropped at least a half-dozen catchable balls, including two touchdowns.

Willie McGinist responded to Jones by saying, “I’ll take an ugly win over a beautiful loss any day.” But I don’t understand what made this a beautiful loss in the first place.


“We make no excuses, we seek no comfort.”

— Mike Tomlin

I’ve never seen Mike Tomlin as hacked-off as he was at the end of this game. Asked what he attributed the team’s red zone failures and dropped passes to, he replied tersely, “us sucking.”

I love it. The Steelers did not play well. They had to deal with a lot of nonsense leading up to the ballgame (none of it their fault), and they played without several important pieces themselves—but Tomlin was having no part of any excuses.

If you’ve ever wondered whether his aphorisms are just coach-speak or whether he means them, here’s your answer. “The standard is the standard” or “we do not care” are not posturing. After this past week, he’d have every right to celebrate a rivalry victory (as Joe Haden put it, “we didn’t lose!”). But Tomlin wasn’t even relieved to have won; he was furious.

Good.


“Steelers’ biggest problem today has been missing easy third downs.”

— Chris Collinsworth

Charles LeClaire-USA TODAY Sports

This seemed spot-on to me. The Steelers weren’t just struggling on third down; they were botching makeable, “easy” ones.

In the fourth quarter, with a 19-7 lead, Pittsburgh embarked on TWO clock-eating drives that ended with 3rd down drops—first by Eric Ebron, then Diontae Johnson. We can fault Terrell Edmunds for blowing coverage on that heart-sinking 70 yarder (and we should—it was unacceptable), but the Ravens shouldn’t have even had the ball. They should have been suffering a long, slow, death-by-a-thousand-cuts. Except the Steelers couldn’t stay on the field.

Asked about the drops post-game, Ben Roethlisberger said, “I need to be more accurate.” That’s admirable, but it’s also false. Sure, he could always be more accurate, but Ben did his job. The deepest receiving corps in team history needs to play like a stable of starters.


“We had too many people at the point of attack. (The late-game rushing success) was more reflective of the individual efforts of Benny Snell.”

— Mike Tomlin

Speaking of the end game: a shout-out to Benny Snell Jr.

If you’ve been reading these columns, you know I believe Snell is the closer the Steelers need. He’s an average runner early in ballgames—competent, but not exceptional—but in the end-game, he becomes Barry Foster. Snell finished the Baltimore game with a respectable 60 yards on 16 carries (3.8ypc), but most came in the 4th quarter. Through three quarters, he’d recorded 8 carries, for 19 yards (2.4ypc, no first downs); in the 4th: 8 for 41 (5.1ypc, three first downs). I know that not everyone agrees, but to me, both the stats and the eyeball test are pretty clear.

I can’t explain why this happens. One might assume the running game opens up late because teams are too worried about Big Ben, but you’d think that would be true earlier too. Also, remember that Snell killed it in late games last year too, and no one was sweating about Mason Rudolph and Devlin Hodges. I’ve also wondered if the O-Line might struggle to get into a run-blocking rhythm without trying to bleed the clock. That’s not Tomlin’s take though. Coach T rarely credits one person’s individual efforts above their teammates—but he did here.

And that’s probably it. Most of Snell’s strong rushes on Wednesday came after he’d bounced outside, hit a hole for the second time, or thrown Marcus Peters into the dirt. That is, they weren’t clean holes opened by the line; they were Benny Snell making something out of nothing.

As I’ve said more than once, this guy needs to be a bigger part of the offense. James Conner is probably a better all-around back, but if the Steelers make Snell a glorified Gary Russell (short-yardage guy, three carries per game), they’ll be making a real mistake.


“I think we’re a good team because all three phases are really really good… It’s not just offense, it’s not just defense. Everybody works together and we figure out a way to win.”

— Joe Haden

Photo by Joe Sargent/Getty Images

This might look like manufactured sunshine after such an ugly win, but Haden might be onto something. We’ve been grinding our teeth about the Steelers’ inability to play 60 minutes (*still a problem), but they keep winning because when one element falters, another steps up.

Against Baltimore, the offense turned the ball over, so the defense returned a pick to the house. Offense couldn’t sustain drives, so the defense held Baltimore to five(!) net passing yards by halftime. Defensive backs blew a late coverage on a long touchdown, so Bennie Snell bled out the clock.

This was an U-G-L-Y game, but they kept finding ways to hang on. As Roethlisberger put it: “we’re disappointed after winning a football game; that’s a problem not many people have.”


“[If I hadn’t injured my hamstring,] we’d have won this game.”

— Robert Griffin III

Charles LeClaire-USA TODAY Sports

This is a bold claim, coming from a guy who’s stat line was: 7 – 12, 33 yards (2.8ypa), 0 TDs, 1 INT, 28.5 quarterback rating. (Note: if every pass falls incomplete, the passer’s rating is 39.6.) The NFL also deducts sacked yards when it calculates net passing yards. Given the 20 yards Griffin lost on three sacks, he netted a whopping 13 yards in 15 drop-backs (0.87ypa). Factoring in Joe Haden’s first quarter pick-six, this was hardly a banner day for the former Rookie of the Year.

But, sure. More of thiswould have probably beaten the Steelers in the end...


“The Steelers’ defense is sending a message: you’re not going to run on us anymore.”

— Chris Collinsworth

Charles LeClaire-USA TODAY Sports

Perhaps Griffin’s posturing above is in reference to his rushing line: 7 carries, 68 yards. Of course, 39 of that came on one 2nd quarter run. Excluding that sprint, the entire Ravens team amassed 90 yards on 27 carries for the game (3.3ypc). This is a far cry from the 219 rushing yards (5.6ypc) that Wednesday’s starters—Griffin, Gus Edwards, and Justice Hill—combined for eleven months ago, when all three started against the Steelers in the 2019 season finale.

Here’s a little breakdown of how the Steelers controlled the Ravens’ offense Wednesday:

Ravens running backs rushed for 37 yards in the first half (3.1ypc); they rushed for 8 in the second half (1.3ypc).

Ravens quarterbacks rushed for 56 yards in the first half (11.2ypc); they rushed for 28 yards in the second half (5.6ypc).

In the previous two Steelers/Ravens matchups, Gus Edwards averaged 19 carries for 109 yards; he rushed 9 times for 10 yards on Wednesday.

Baltimore netted 90 yards in the air, even including that 70 yard bomb.

En toto, Baltimore logged just 219 yards on 49 offensive plays (4.5 yards per play). A full 50% of that output was achieved on two plays: Griffin’s 39 yard draw, and the aforementioned 70 yarder. Minus those two plays, the Ravens entire offensive output dips to 110 yards on 47 plays (2.3 yards per play).

The Steelers defense demolished the Ravens on Wednesday.


“We don’t have to reinvent the wheel… We’ve gotta coach better and play better when we get inside a bowl”

— Mike Tomlin

Photo by Shelley Lipton/Icon Sportswire via Getty Images

Exactly. The Steelers won on Wednesday night because they were the better team, even on a bad day. They executed like the Three Stooges (53 Stooges?) but sloppy play is not endemic on this team, especially given the cirsumstances. Watching Tomlin’s intensity in his post-game talk, I have no doubt the Steelers will shape up quick.

(P.S. “when we get inside a bowl” is my new favorite aphorism for “when the game is on.”)


“I’m gonna go check on Bud right now”

— Joe Haden (at the end of his post-game sideline Q&A)

Photo by Shelley Lipton/Icon Sportswire via Getty Images

Bud Dupree appears lost for the season—which is tragic for the team, since he’s become a legitimate star, and tragic for him, since he’s playing on the franchise tag, and figures to lose millions of dollars. I wonder a tiny bit whether this increases the chances that he’ll return to Pittsburgh next year, but mostly I just feel bad for him. He’s always seemed like a nice guy, and it took him a few years to find his footing. What a crime to blow out his knee on a non-contact injury in a game that shouldn’t have even been played that day.

On a side note, Alex Highsmith may be no Bud Dupree, but he’s looked alright this year. I worry about his stamina (the rookie wall is real) but maybe 11 games as a rotational player will mitigate that. In any case, I feel better about him at ROLB than I would with Anthony Chickillo.

In a related story, I noticed Avery Williamson was on the field a little more on Wednesday. That’s good, especially with Robert Spillane still playing well. The Steelers ran with five linebackers for a while in the last Baltimore game. At the time, this meant three OLBs and two ILBs. If they keep rotating that package, they could easily run three ILBs instead. Fingers crossed.


“Ravens not happy with Steelers’ delay tactics before halftime”

— Michael David Smith headline on Pro Football Talk

Photo by Kirk Irwin/Getty Images

You know, John, some of us weren’t happy with the Ravens delay tactics before kickoff, either. Like threatening to strike if you didn’t get more practice time, or taking no responsibility for the ways you all jeopardized the entire NFL season.

Complaining about how they got cheated (when the truth is they just lost) has become de rigueur for the Ravens lately. Harbaugh did it in the last game too—insisting Minkah Fitzpatrick interfered with the game’s final pass (he didn’t). To his credit, RGIII wouldn’t bite: “we had two plays called. We knew what we were going to do, and we got them both run. We just didn’t execute.” But Harbaugh couldn’t resist deflecting blame.

It’s exactly what we’ve come to expect from him. As he stamps his leadership more and more on the Ravens organization, Harbaugh’s definition of sportsmanship gets clearer: run up the score when the game is in hand; complain about fairness if you lose.

I used to roll my eyes at Ray Lewis’s messiah act, but I have to admit, I miss his integrity in Baltimore. Ray was too proud and took the game too seriously to have tolerated this kind of after-the-fact whining. (I also suspect he would have been furious that his team allowed a strength coach to nearly blow up their season, and mortified that his teammates demanded an extra prep day so they wouldn’t pull muscles.) Leadership matters, and I haven’t seen much of it in Baltimore since Lewis (and to a lesser degree, Terrell Suggs) left town.

Since Lewis retired, Harbaugh’s Ravens have been remarkably mediocre. Their record in the last eight years seems respectable, if unremarkable (70-53, .569). But it’s padded by 2019’s 14-2 mark, which looks increasingly like a fluke—a season where no one expected Lamar Jackson, and where Baltimore’s chief rivals were handcuffed (the Steelers, with Ben’s injury; the Browns with an overwhelmed coach). None of that is true anymore. With the Ravens in a 1-4 free-fall, blaming the refs (twice!) is as transparent as it is low-quality. When Jackson said Tennessee “just wanted it more” the other week, we got a glimpse into the culture of that team. It was an indictment of Harbaugh at least as much as Jackson.

I know a lot of people claim Harbagh is a great coach, but I just don’t see it. Discounting last season, Harbaugh’s post-RayRay record is 56-51—just a shade over .500—and he hasn’t won a playoff game in six years. Maybe it’s time people started saying, “he only won with Brian Billick’s players.”


“Good luck to the boys today. Pad the stats—should be an easy one.”

— Stephon Tuitt

In the interest of fairness, I also want to send a nasty look in Stephon Tuitt’s direction. I like Tuitt, but this tweet was insanely stupid. Tuitt is probably really lucky that he’s still on COVID protocols and can’t enter the Steelers’ facility. I wouldn’t want to look Coach T in the face today, after handing Baltimore bulletin board material like this…


“I’m gonna be healthy by the time we play this game…”

— Zach Banner

And Zach Banner reminds us that not all Twitter complaints are toxic. This one was pretty good.


“Pittsburgh will not be charged a timeout…”

— Referee Ronald Torbert

Charles LeClaire-USA TODAY Sports

In the weirdest (underreported) turn of events, this successful challenge kinda won the game for the Steelers. It was on a 2nd and 10 reception that JuJu Smith-Schuster fumbled out of bounds, originally called an incomplete pass. Only a five yard gain, it set up a makeable 3rd down that the team converted—the drive eventually resulting in Pittsburgh’s only offensive touchdown all day. Lose this challenge and you’re facing much-more-difficult 3rd and 10 (the Steelers converted one 3rd down all day over six yards). If that drive had stalled, 19-14 may have started looking a little more like 12-14.

How about that for bizarro-world: Tomlin’s most famous coaching shortcoming—winning challenges—winds up being one of the crucial turning points in the game. Nothing makes sense this year…


“At least this week, anyway, it looks like Ravens coach John Harbaugh is more in charge than anyone at the league office.”

— Tim Benz, Pittsburgh Tribune-Review

The NFL owes a lot of people explanations. Tom Pelissero’s tweet is representative of a league talking point I heard repeatedly this week: the NFL didn’t make this final switch (from Tuesday to Wednesday) to give Baltimore any competitive advantage; they did it so that the Ravens would get an extra day to train. Aggravatingly, this declaration is always delivered with a self-satisfied graveness that masks the fact that the logic doesn’t work.

Like many, I’m irritated with the first two postponements, but I won’t begrudge the league for rescheduling. I also await the NFL’s punishment (which damn well better be severe, since the Ravens are unequivocally guilty of flouting the rules), but you can’t pretend the virus doesn’t exist.

However, the last move—from Tuesday to Wednesday—has flimsy justification. The Ravens wanted to avoid muscle strains? Too bad. Stretch in your living room, do push-ups in your basement, run wind sprints in your backyard. And if that’s still not good enough, blame your own organization for allowing a strength coach to work without a mask (or a contact tracing device). That’s not the league’s problem any more than the Broncos’ maskless quarterback room last week.

The fact that the league capitulated to Baltimore’s strike threat gives away the game: there is no plan. They’re making this all up as they go. And they’re perfectly willing to be strong-armed by any team with the audacity to throw a fit.


“The Steelers (11-0) are still undefeated, and this contest shouldn’t serve as admissible evidence for anyone’s long-term analysis.”

—Nick Shook, nfl.com

Photo by Shelley Lipton/Icon Sportswire via Getty Images

In the end, this is the conclusion that makes the most sense to me. Ugly win. 11-0. On to Washington.

Go Steelers.

Sours: https://www.behindthesteelcurtain.com/2020/12/5/22151482/the-story-of-the-week-12-steelers-vs-ravens-game-in-quotes-john-harbaugh-mike-tomlin-nfl-news
Famous Quotes

16 Susan B. Anthony Quotes to Make You Treasure Your Independence

Susan Brownell Anthony was a notorious American social reformer and women’s rights activist who played a pivotal role in the women’s suffrage movement.

Anthony was also involved in the temperance movement that aimed to stop the production (and sale) of alcohol. When she wanted to speak at one of the conventions, she was denied the chance solely because she was a woman. In that moment, Anthony realized that she had to do something about it or women don’t stand a chance to be taken seriously when it comes to politics. So she fought for the women’s right to vote.

Susan B. Anthony tirelessly gave speeches around the country, supporting women’s suffrage. She even voted illegally in the presidential election, which got her arrested and fined $100, a fine she never paid but rather chose to give the money away instead.

Moreover, she played a crucial role in the fight to end slavery, opening up her home to abolitionists, who made Susan B. Anthony’s home a regular meeting place.

Here are 16 Susan B. Anthony quotes to make you treasure your independence.

empowering-Susan-B-Anthony-quotes

I think the girl who is able to earn her own living and pay her own way should be as happy as anybody on earth. The sense of independence and security is very sweet.

 

I distrust those people who know so well what God wants them to do because I notice it always coincides with their own desires.

 

I declare to you that woman must not depend upon the protection of man, but must be taught to protect herself, and there I take my stand.

 

Forget conventionalisms; forget what the world thinks of you stepping out of your place; think your best thoughts, speak your best words, work your best works, looking to your own conscience for approval.

 

susan-b-anthony-quote-true-republic-women-rightsThe true republic: men, their rights, and nothing more; women, their rights, and nothing less.

 

There never will be complete equality until women themselves help to make laws and elect lawmakers.

 

Our Job is not to make young women grateful. It is to make the ungrateful so they keep going. Gratitude never radicalized anybody.

 

Susan-B-Anthony-quote-women-rights-men-haveThere shall never be another season of silence until women have the same rights men have on this green earth.

 

Independence is happiness.

 

No man is good enough to govern any woman without her consent.

 

Failure is impossible.

 

I don’t want to die as long as I can work; the minute I cannot, I want to go.

 

To think, I have had more than 60 years of hard struggle for a little liberty, and then to die without it seems so cruel.

 

Organize, agitate, educate, must be our war cry.

 

Join the union, girls, and together say Equal Pay for Equal Work.

 

The older I get, the greater power I seem to have to help the world; I am like a snowball – the further I am rolled the more I gain.

 

Trust me that as I ignore all law to help the slave, so will I ignore it all to protect an enslaved woman.

 

 

 

Sours: https://www.goalcast.com/16-susan-b-anthony-quotes/

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