Russian amethyst gemstone

Russian amethyst gemstone DEFAULT

18.51 CT Unheated ROYAL DEEP RUSSIAN Purple Amethyst (Russia)15.41 CT Unhea

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Details

Species: Natural Amethyst 

Treatment: Unheated & Untreated. Guaranteed.

Origin: Russia

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Reports are available from all major gemological laboratories at cost.

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List Of Gemstones Found In Russia

List Of Gemstones Found In RussiaRussia is a vast country with immeasurable mineral and gemstone reserves. Russia has become s significant diamond miner and manufacturer. In fact, Russia is the next leading diamond producing country all over the world after Botswana. Russia is having around 22% for the world’s diamond production.

Russia has vast areas of rich mineral deposits with the most famous area being the Ural mountains in Siberia. Russian gemstones include Diamonds, Jade, Alexanderite, Charolite, Agate, Amber, Serphinite, Rhodonite, Diopside, Amethyst, Aquamarine, Topaz, Citrine, Emerald, Garnet, Opal, Malachite and many areas are yet to be discovered.

Moreover, mining of diamond in Russia is conceded out mostly in the Sakha (Republic of Northeastern Russia), next to the Arctic Circle. It has also some significant deposits of several colored stones. The country is well-known for exceptional and unusual stones such as Demantoid Garnet and Alexandrite.

Russian Emeralds are also famous for their exceptional shade and crystal lucidity. Emerald is usually mined near Ekaterinburg near Russia’s Ural Mountains. Anybody thinking of Russian stones is more than probably thinking of these delightfully ornamented Faberge Eggs that are so precious and hunted year after year.

Moreover, Russia is also believed to be the significant source of sapphire, ruby, and emeralds, which finds their way to the world market. It is also ground-breaking work by the Russian Academy of Sciences to create man-made crystals for laser weapons and instruments that are creating in this industry.

There are so several stones that arrive in different colors and distinctions that it would be unbreakable not to get one to go with your exact taste. Learning quite a bit about every stone and its basic aspects will assist you in your exploration for the perfect gemstone.

List Of Gemstones Found In Russia

Alexandrite

Alexandrite is a variety of chrysoberyl and it was named after Czar Alexander II. It is a colored transform gemstone that is green in daytime and in red color during non-natural light. It is usually mined in Russia, USA, Brazil, Burma, and Tasmania. It is also relatively unusual and is just ever used for the design of modern jewelry.

What is the most eminent about this gemstone is that it has the capability to modify color. This exclusive attributes makes the Alexandrite one of the most precious stones of all time. It is also considered as a classy stone. Based on Moh’s’’ Scale of Hardness, Alexandrite range from 8.5.

Amethyst

Amethyst is the most extremely treasured and identifiable stone from the quartz family. Its reasonable cost makes it a perennially popular option. It is available in different colors from purple to light red-violet. Its main sources include Madagascar, Brazil Russia, India, Canada, Zambia, and Uruguay. Amethyst ranges from 7 based on Moh’s Scale of Hardness.

Aquamarine

Aquamarine is a component of the beryl family and varies in color from an almost neutral light blue to blue-green. The most valuable color is a deep-blue aqua tone. It ranges from 7.5-8 based on the Moh’s scale of solidity and obtained it from Latin words, which means sea and water. They are usually mined in Russia, Zambia, Tanzania, Kenya, Nigeria, and Sri Lanka.

Blue Topaz

Topaz arrives in an extensive variety of colors such as peach, pink, red, orange, brown, gold, yellow, that is usually found in Sri Lanka, Russia, Brazil, and Pakistan. It is naturally light to medium blue topaz, which is improved by irradiation to create a more strong blue color. It is considered also as solid stone ranging from 8 based on the Moh’s scale of resistance. In fact, it can be divided with a particular blow and must be protected from solid knocks.

Citrine

Citrine is a quartz gemstone. While its term refers to a lemon yellow tone, it can be found in a variety of yellows from light to shady yellow as well as, golden brown. Based on the Moh’s Scale of rigidity, it is approximately measured 7. Significant sources include USA Brazil, Argentina, Spain, Scotland, Namibia, and Russia. Citrines are attractive stones, which, are trying to create a retort in the world of jewelry.

Emerald

Emerald is the most valuable element of the beryl family. They have a powerful, loaded and bright green color. The term Emerald is usually originated from the French term “esmeraude” and the Greek word “smaragdos” which literally means “green stone”. In emeralds, inclusions are accepted since they are definitely a precious stone.

In fact, a high quality emerald has the prospective to be valuable compare with a diamond. It has an incomparable shine and its significant sources include Russia, Zimbabwe, USA, South Africa, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Australia, India, Tanzania, Madagascar, Nigeria, and Malawi.

Based on Moh’s scale of resistance, emerald approximately ranges from 7.5-8. The affluent glow of the emerald makes this stone a unique one; though, looking for an emerald with a high-quality is quite difficult because inclusions can an affect to its color. In fact, it can be more precious than an almost perfect emerald because its color has the probability to be deeper than the light color of an unblemished emerald.

Garnet

Garnets are typically approach in an unfathomable red variant that is lovely to the eye. Garnets typically refer to more than ten unusual stones that have a comparable chemical structure. Though red is the tone most frequently that garnets come in, there are also another variations of orange, green, yellow, and other earthy colors.

The shade of a garnet has the tendency to change when perceive during daytime or non-natural light, so causing them even more hunted after. Based on Moh’s scale of hardness, it has 6.5-7.5. They have excellent wearing capabilities as a result of their solidity. They are mostly from Russia, South America, India, and Central America, as well

Malachite

Russia built the famous Malachite church St Isaacs Cathedral out of Malachite and eight huge columns to support 101 meter high structure. The Gemstone was mined in the Ural mountains in the 19th century and has The malachite room

Opal

Cacholong Opal is an exclusive stone with an attractive play-of-color flaunt. Opal its chemically same as quartz and some refer to Russian opal as Quartz Cacholong Opals.It displays a complete range of colors from the color wheel place aligned with a bright or shady setting. Based on Moh’s scale, opal has the hardness of 5.5-6.5. Some significant sources include Russia, Mexico, Australia, Nevada, Guatemala, and Honduras.

In fact, 95% of opals are originated from Australia. The collection of opals compromises a quantity of special stones, which hold one attribute; they all stand out and shine in a ceaselessly varying play of colors. While there are several different classes of opal, three of the most famous are Fire, White, and Black opals.

In addition to, black opal is the rarest, most exclusive and measured by several gem collectors as the most stunning pieces. Since opals are not too solid, they require a shielding setting and must be worn as frequently as feasible because moisture and air to make the stone last.

Topaz

Topaz is solid and beautiful stone that has been recognized and treasured both in earliest and contemporary period. Topaz physically comes in red, pink, brown, yellow, and neutral varieties, but it is also accessible in contemporary times in numerous color of blue by means of treatment with irradiation.

This stone can be mined in Russia, Pakistan, Brazil, and Sri Lanka. Topaz is a solid stone, and has a hardness of 8 based on the Moh’s scale of rigidity. Topaz has turn out to be a fairly striking mineral and it is sometimes puzzled with the quartz topaz, but its structure is quite attractive and unusual, as well.

Famous History of Russian Stones

The well-known history of jewellery in Russia has started to stretch back and begun from the establishment of the Vladimir-Suzdal Princedom and the Kievan Russia during the ninth and twelfth century. Most of the Russian cities are St. Petersburg, Ustyug, Novgorod, and many more.

In Russia, silver and gold settings were extensively used for gemstones, and expensive stones were measured to be representation of the highest power. In fact, a tsar’s tiara, scepter, and orb were splendidly inlaid with stones. Majestic pantries were persistently refilled with semi-precious gemstones, which were brought from all over the nation.

During 17th century, semi-precious gemstones begun to take away from Russia and then, minerals ofmalachitewere found in the Ural Mountains, while Cornelian, Agate, and Jasper were took out from Siberia. During the sovereignty ofPeter Ithe Ural, gemstones obtained all-inclusive fame.

Milling and lapidary factories were produced in Russia. The era of Catherine II created a mark as a peak of success for Russian jeweler art. Manufacturing of jeweler factories of that period was illustrated with a creative combination of latest forms and at the same time, conventional Russian estheticism.

In fact, the development of Russian jewelry period has a favorable grouping of gemstone palette. Then, during the 17th century, most of the products generated by the Russian jeweler factories were remarkable, especially the rubies and sapphires in one piece of jewelry.

List Of Gemstones Found In Russia

In addition to, they are often combined with massive enamels, but during the 18th century, dazzling and faceted diamonds became one of the most preferred stones of the nobles. In the middle of the 19th century, other valuable gemstones such as topaz, emeralds, diamonds and rubies were reduced from Russia.

Also, the ability of creating jewelries reached out a high-level at those times. Semi-precious gemstones were not only utilized for jewelry, but also for different objects such as table-tops, candle sticks, vases, figurines, which were in high-demand, especially for all valued clients.

On that time also, Charles Faberge’s jewelry house was established along the 2nd half of 19th centuries. It rapidly won fame and begun executing orders from the royal family. Some of these jewels are Jasper, Nephrite, Rock Crystal, Lazurite, and other different classes of quartz were being used here.

This famous jewelry house supplied various types of jewelries to almost all royal houses and noble people from Asia, Africa, and Europe. Their products are truly appreciated by gem collectors and experts of jewelry masterpieces and their excellent jewelry usually perceived to all jewelry art.

On the Orthodox ritual, the patron of jewelers and smith are Damian and Sts. Cosmas. A festival in their tribute is also referred as “Kuzminki”, which is remembered twice a year on 14th of November and July in Gregorian calendar. There are also local holidays for the tribute of this festival.

For millions of years, individualshave been astonished and captivated by highlighted stones. The unusual colors of stones characterize different features of the world for our predecessors. In fact, blue sapphires signified the heaven and sky, as well, while red rubies represent for love and fire.

Gemstones were used mostly as talismans as well as, useful to forecast the future and shield the wearer. Based on the Chinese zodiac, it was usually represented by animals and precious stones; meanwhile Hindu myth controlled powers with different stones and set them into different zodiac signs.

The bible also stated that these stones were named under the new and old testaments. From Victorian times, there has been a compromised language of stones where different stones provide special emotions like “true love”, “faithfulness”, “eternal affection”, and many more.

Nowadays, most individuals identify their birthstone and we must aware that there are different types of gemstones, which depends in different aspects of our lives such as state of the nation, anniversaries, and many more. These stones are mostly used for their exquisiteness as well as, for their personal satisfaction.

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Amethyst Gemstone Information

Amethyst is an extraordinarily beautiful purple gemstone. For many thousands of years, the most striking representative of the quartz family, amethyst has been a jewel coveted by kings, princes and religious leaders. Designers celebrate amethyst as the ideal choice for jewelry because of its regal color, variety of sizes and shapes, affordability and wide tonal range from light to dark purple. It is a color that you will also treasure in your own jewels.

Amethyst is a purple variety of quartz, which ranges in color from a light violet to an intense royal purple. Some of the finest amethyst now comes from Africa, but the greatest quantity is produced in South America.

The prices and value of amethyst can vary tremendously, depending on the size and quality of the gemstone.  AJS Gems is your source for the highest quality amethyst gems and many other precious colored stones from across the globe, available at Bangkok direct wholesale prices.


 
Why Buy Loose Gemstones Instead of Pre-Set Jewelry?
 
There are many reasons, but mainly it comes down to value and choice...

When buying your gemstone loose instead of a pre-set stone, you can be sure that you are getting the best value for your money. Loose gemstones are less expensive, a better value, and you can really see what you are paying for. The most important part of getting the right price and finding the best value is to first see what you're getting. A jewelry setting will hide the inclusions inside a gem, and can deepen or brighten its color. With a loose stone you can much more easily inspect the gem and see it for what it really is. In this way you can get a better idea of its true worth and be sure you are paying a fair price.

The second advantage of buying a loose gemstone is choice. You are free to pick the exact color, cut, shape and variety of the stone for the setting of your dreams, be it yellow gold, white gold, platinum or silver; prong set or bezel set with diamond accents. You can experience the joy of creating your very own, one-of-a-kind jewelry design. Choose from a variety of jewelry settings and styles to create a completely original presentation that will perfectly suit your individual gemstone and will be as unique as you are!

 

Amethyst Ring                                         Amethyst Jewelry 

 

At AJS Gems, you will find a large collection of high quality loose amethyst gems for making fine jewelry.



Attributes

OriginBrazil, Germany, Hungary, India, Canada, Australia, South America, Iran, Japan, Madagascar, Mexico, Sri Lanka, Africa, U.S.A, USSR.
ColorPurple, light purple to intense royal purple mauve and violet, loose amethyst gemstones come in all shades of purple.
Refractive Index1.544 - 1.553
Chemical Composition SiO2
Hardness7
Density2.6 - 2.7
Crystal StructureHexagonal

  

Amethyst is a macrocrystalline variety of the mineral Quartz (SiO2). Quartz is one of the most abundant single minerals on earth. It makes up about 12% of the earth's crust, occurring in a wide variety of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks.

Quartz varieties are commonly separated into two groups based on the size of the individual grains or crystals; macrocrystalline quartz in which individual crystals are distinguishable with the naked eye, and cryptocrystalline quartz in which the individual crystals are too small to be easily distinguishable under the light microscope.

Some of the macrocrystalline quartz varieties are: Amethyst, Ametrine, Cat's-eye Quartz, Citrine, Phantom Quartz , Rock Crystal, Rose Quartz, Rutilated Quartz and Smoky Quartz.  Blue Aventurine Quartz and Green Aventurine Quartz are actually quartzites (a rock, not a mineral) composed essentially of interlocking macrocrystalline quartz grains with disseminated grains of other color imparting minerals.

The cryptocrystalline varieties of quartz may be separated into two types; fibrous and microgranular. Chalcedony is the general term applied to the fibrous cryptocrystalline varieties. Agate is an example of a fibrous cryptocystalline banded chalcedony variety of quartz. Carnelian, Chrysoprase and bloodstone are other chalcedony varieties.  Chert is the general term applied to the granular cryptocrystalline varieties of quartz, of which flint and Jasper are examples.

 

amethyst crystal                                                       Amethyst Gems

 

The purple color of amethyst is due to small amounts (approximately 40 parts per million) of iron (Fe4+) impurities at specific sites in the crystal structure of quartz. The difference between amethyst and citrine is only the oxidation state of the iron impurities present in the quartz. Upon heating, the iron impurities are reduced and amethyst's purple color fades and becomes yellow to reddish-orange (citrine), green, or colorless depending on the site and original oxidation state of the iron impurities present and the amount and duration of the heating. The amethystine color usually can be regained by irradiation which re-oxidizes the iron impurities. This irradiation can be done by synthetic means, or it can occur in nature by radioactive decay of nearby radioactive minerals. In most cases this is a reversible process, however excessive heating may change the distribution of the iron impurities at the different sites within the quartz making it impossible to convert it back to amethyst by subsequent irradiation. The heating process can occur naturally or synthetically.

Amethyst has a chemical formula of SiO2, a density of 2.60 - 2.70, and a refractive index of 1.544 - 1.553. The refractive index (RI), measured using a refractometer, is an indication of the amount light rays are bent by a mineral.  Birefringence is the difference between the minimum and maximum RI. When birefringence is high, light rays reflect off different parts of the back of a stone causing an apparent doubling of the back facets when viewed through the front facet.

Most gems have a crystalline structure. Crystals have planes of symmetry and are divided into seven symmetry systems. The number of axes, their length, and their angle to each other determine the system to which a crystal belongs.  Amethyst gemstones belong to the Hexagonal crystal system.  Amethyst is composed of an irregular superposition of alternate lamellae of right-handed and left-handed quartz. It has been shown that this structure may be due to mechanical stresses. As a consequence of this composite formation, amethyst is apt to break with a rippled fracture or to show "thumb markings", and the intersection of two sets of curved ripples may produce on the fractured surface a pattern something like that of "engine turning".

Because it has a hardness of seven on the Mohs scale, amethyst is suitable for use in any style of jewelry.



Color 

Amethyst ranges in color from a light slightly-pinkish violet to a deep grape purple.  The pale colors are sometimes called "Rose de France" and can be seen set in Victorian jewelry. The deep colors are the most valuable, particularly a rich purple with rose flashes.  Amethyst may exhibit one or both secondary hues, red and/or blue. The ideal grade is called "Deep Siberian" and has a primary purple hue of around 75–80 percent, 15–20 percent blue and (depending on the light source) red secondary hues.

 

In the 20th century, the color of amethyst was attributed to the presence of manganese. However, since it is capable of being greatly altered and even discharged by heat, the color was believed by some authorities to be from an organic source. Ferric thiocyanate was suggested, and sulfur was said to have been detected in the mineral.

More recent work has shown that amethyst's coloration is due to ferric iron impurities.  Further study has shown a complex interplay of iron and aluminium is responsible for the color.

  

 
Cut 


Amethyst is available in a wide range of calibrated sizes and shapes, including many fancy shapes. Large fine stones may be sold in free sizes but generally amethyst is cut in standardized dimensions. Amethyst is commonly found in most popular gemstone shapes, such as pear, emerald cut, square, trillion, cabochon, round, oval, cushion, and heart shaped cuts.

 

Lower grades of material are cabbed, carved, and made into a great variety of beads and other ornamental objects.

 

 

Treatments

 

Amethyst can be heat treated to improve the color or change it to citrine.  Amethyst heat treatment is used if the natural color of the stone is too dark. The heat treatment is used to lighten the color to a rich purple or change the color entirely.  Darker hues of amethyst are rarely enhanced to perfect their color, although some varieties do respond well to heat enhancement.

 

AJS Gems fully discloses any and all treatments to our gemstones.

 


Sources

Amethyst is mined in Brazil, Uruguay, Bolivia, Argentina, India, North America and some African countries. Generally, amethyst from South America tends to be available in larger sizes than African amethyst but amethyst from Africa has the reputation for having better, more saturated, color in small sizes. Very dark amethyst, mostly in small sizes, is also mined in Australia.

 

The deposits with the greatest economic significance are in various states in southern Brazil and in neighbouring Uruguay. The third major export country is Madagascar. However, this gemstone is spread all over the world. Good specimens were found in Aztec graves, though the deposits from which they were extracted are no longer known today. On the Canadian side of Lake Superior in North America, there is a place named Amethyst Harbor. The violet quartz is found there in ample quantities, though rarely in gemstone quality. The fame of Idar-Oberstein, the German gemstone center, is based on domestic amethyst finds. In earlier times, raw material was delivered there from the Zillertal Alps. When these nearby deposits ceased to yield, the old cutters' tradition was able to be preserved thanks to supplies organised by German emigrs in South America. Russian amethysts, which were mainly mined in winter in the Urals, were once famous for their particularly beautiful color, which shone magnificently even in artificial light. In Tibet there were amethyst rosaries, for there the gemstone was dedicated to Buddha and was said to promote clarity of mind. In Sri Lanka, stones which have rolled down on their own are found in debris.

However, the amethyst is more likely to turn up in spaces lining agate almonds and druses in igneous rocks. What was presumed to be the largest-ever cavity was discovered in 1900 in Rio Grande do Sul. The almond measured ten by five by three meters (33 by 16 by 10 ft.) and weighed an estimated eight tons. The dark violet amethysts, some as large as a man's fist, may have weighed some 700 cwt. altogether. There is a piece weighing 200 kilograms, taken from this Brazilian treasure, in the Washington Museum. In recent times, a find in the USA has been making headlines. In July 1993, a three-meter druse was found in Maine, which contained well over 1000 kilograms of cuttable amethyst, some of it in crystals 19 cm in length.

 

The South American deposits in particular, which were not discovered until the nineteenth century, brought down the price of the violet gemstone. The amethyst bracelet of Queen Charlotte of England, which was so famous at the beginning of the 18th century, its value being estimated at 2000 pounds sterling at that time, was apparently worth only 100 pounds 200 years later. However, the price has a close relationship with the quality, and the quality varies immensely. Most of the material from Brazil is light-colored, a tender purple. In Madagascar, it is generally red or violet hues which are found. Uruguay supplies the most beautiful and the deepest color, but it is mostly blemished. Thus immaculate stones of the finest violet still fetch carat prices of well over a hundred euros. Mounted with diamond braid trimming, as has been the custom for some 100 years, enchanting pieces of jewellery are thus created. No wonder that people find it worth going to the trouble of producing imitations and synthetics.

 

Amethyst also occurs at many localities in the United States, but these specimens are rarely fine enough for use in jewelry. Among these may be mentioned Amethyst Mountain, Texas; Yellowstone National Park; Delaware County, Pennsylvania; Haywood County, North Carolina; Deer Hill and Stow, Maine. It is found also in the Lake Superior region. Amethyst is relatively common in Ontario, and in various locations throughout Nova Scotia, but uncommon elsewhere in Canada. Amethyst is produced in abundance from the state of Minas Gerais in Brazil where it occurs in large geodes within volcanic rocks. It is also found and mined in South Korea. The largest opencast amethyst vein in the world is in Maissau, Lower Austria.

 

Amethyst was used as a gemstone by the ancient Egyptians and was largely employed in antiquity for intaglios. Beads of amethyst were found in Anglo-Saxon graves in England. It is a widely distributed mineral, but fine, clear specimens that are suitable for cutting as ornamental stones are confined to few localities. Such crystals occur either in the cavities of mineral-veins and in granitic rocks, or as a lining in agate geodes. A huge geode, or "amethyst-grotto", from near Santa Cruz in southern Brazil was exhibited at the Dusseldorf, Germany Exhibition of 1902. Many of the hollow agates of Brazil and Uruguay contain a crop of amethyst crystals in the interior. Much fine amethyst comes from Russia, especially from near Mursinka in the Ekaterinburg district, where it occurs in drusy cavities in granitic rocks. Many localities in India yield amethyst.

 

In more recent times, certain gems (usually of Bolivian origin) that have shown alternate bands of amethyst purple with citrine orange have been given the name ametrine.

 

A large number of further miraculous powers are attributed to amethyst gemstones in all sorts of cultures.

The name amethyst comes from the Greek a ("not") and methuskein ("to intoxicate"), a reference to the belief that the stone protected its owner from drunkenness; the ancient Greeks and Romans wore amethyst gems and made drinking vessels of it in the belief that it would prevent intoxication.

The legend of the origin of amethyst comes from Greek myths. Dionysius, the god of intoxication, was angered one day by an insult from a mere mortal and swore revenge on the next mortal that crossed his path, creating fierce tigers to carry out his wish. Along came unsuspecting Amethyst, a beautiful young maiden on her way to pay tribute to the goddess Diana. Diana turned Amethyst into a statue of pure crystalline quartz to protect her from the brutal claws. Dionysius wept tears of wine in remorse for his action at the sight of the beautiful statue. The god's tears stained the quartz purple, creating the gem we know today.

Amethyst's color is as unique as it is seductive, in fact is this gemstone is said, to protect its wearer against seduction. 

 

Moses described amethyst as a symbol of the Spirit of God, in the official robes of the High Priest of the Jews.

 

Leonardo Da Vinci wrote that amethyst was able to dissipate evil thoughts and quicken the intelligence.

 

In Tibet, amethyst is considered to be sacred to Buddha and rosaries are often fashioned from it.

 

The Russian Empress Catherine the Great, sent thousands of miners into the Urals to look for the stone she most treasured - royal purple amethyst.

 

Amethyst  has been said to protect crops against tempests and locusts, bring good fortune in war and drive out evil spirits and inspire intellect.

Amethyst is said to bring serenity and calm, to enhance one's ability to assimilate new ideas, and to assist during meditation. It is also said to give strength and mental stability, and to provide balance between one's physical, emotional, intellectual states. Amethyst is also said to make one shrewd in business matters.

Amethyst  is a symbol of heavenly understanding, and of the pioneer in thought and action on the philosophical, religious, spiritual, and material planes. Ranking members of the Roman Catholic Church traditionally wear rings set with a large amethyst as part of their office.

 

Since it was thought to put the wearer in a chaste frame of mind, amethyst symbolized trust and piety.

 

Amethyst crystals came to a very prominent position used in many ornaments of the Catholic clergy. It was the stone of bishops and cardinals and can be found in crosses and Papal Rings.

 

Amethyst is the birthstone for the month of February & the anniversary gemstone for the 6th year of marriage.  Amethyst  is also associated with the astrological signs of Pisces, Aries (especially the violet and purple variety), Aquarius, and Sagittarius.

 

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32.26 CT Unheated Vivid Purple Amethyst (Russia)

Amethyst

Mineral, quartz variety

For other uses, see Amethyst (disambiguation).

Main amethyst producing countries

Amethyst is a violet variety of quartz. The name comes from the Koine Greek αμέθυστος amethystos from α- a-, "not" and μεθύσκω (Ancient Greek) methysko / μεθώ metho (Modern Greek), "intoxicate", a reference to the belief that the stone protected its owner from drunkenness.[1] The ancient Greeks wore amethyst and carved drinking vessels from it in the belief that it would prevent intoxication.

Amethyst is a semiprecious stone that is often used in jewelry and is the traditional birthstone for February.

Structure[edit]

Amethyst is a purple variety of quartz (SiO2) and owes its violet color to irradiation, impurities of iron and in some cases other transition metals, and the presence of other trace elements, which result in complex crystal lattice substitutions.[2][3][4] The hardness of the mineral is the same as quartz, thus making it suitable for use in jewelry.

Hue and tone[edit]

Amethyst occurs in primary hues from a light lavender or pale violet, to a deep purple. Amethyst may exhibit one or both secondary hues, red and blue.[5] High quality amethyst can be found in Siberia, Sri Lanka, Brazil, Uruguay, and the Far East. The ideal grade is called "Deep Siberian" and has a primary purple hue of around 75–80%, with 15–20% blue and (depending on the light source) red secondary hues.[6] ‘Rose de France’ is defined by its markedly light shade of the purple, reminiscent of a lavender/lilac shade. These pale colors were once considered undesirable but have recently become popular due to intensive marketing.[7]

Green quartz is sometimes incorrectly called green amethyst, which is a misnomer and not an appropriate name for the material, the proper terminology being prasiolite.[8] Other names for green quartz are vermarine or lime citrine.[citation needed]

Amethyst frequently shows color zoning, with the most intense color typically found at the crystal terminations. One of a gem cutter’s tasks is to make a finished product with even color. Sometimes, only a thin layer of a natural, uncut amethyst is violet colored, or the color is very uneven. The uncut gem may have only a small portion that’s suitable for faceting.[9][10]

The color of amethyst has been demonstrated to result from substitution by irradiation of trivalent iron (Fe3+) for silicon in the structure,[4][11] in the presence of trace elements of large ionic radius,[3] and, to a certain extent, the amethyst color can naturally result from displacement of transition elements even if the iron concentration is low. Natural amethyst is dichroic in reddish violet and bluish violet,[4] but when heated, turns yellow-orange, yellow-brown, or dark brownish and may resemble citrine,[12] but loses its dichroism, unlike genuine citrine. When partially heated, amethyst can result in ametrine.

Amethyst can fade in tone if overexposed to light sources and can be artificially darkened with adequate irradiation.[4] It does not fluoresce under either short-wave or long-wave UV light.

Geographic distribution[edit]

Amethyst is found in many locations around the world. Between 2000 and 2010, the greatest production was from Marabá and Pau d'Arco, Pará, and the Paraná Basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; Sandoval, Santa Cruz, Bolivia; Artigas, Uruguay; Kalomo, Zambia; and Thunder Bay, Ontario. Lesser amounts are found in many other locations in Africa, Brazil, Spain, Argentina, Russia, Afghanistan, South Korea, Mexico, and the United States.[13]

An amethyst geodethat formed when large crystalsgrew in open spaces inside the rock.

Amethyst is produced in abundance from the state of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil where it occurs in large geodes within volcanic rocks.[14][15][16][17][18] Many of the hollow agates of southwestern Brazil and Uruguay contain a crop of amethyst crystals in the interior. Artigas, Uruguay and neighboring Brazilian state Rio Grande do Sul are large world producers, with lesser quantities mined in Minas Gerais and Bahia states.[13]

Amethyst from Brazil in the Mineral museum in India

Amethyst is also found and mined in South Korea.[19] The large opencast amethyst vein at Maissau, Lower Austria, was historically important,[1] but is no longer included among significant producers.[13] Much fine amethyst comes from Russia, especially from near Mursinka in the Ekaterinburg district, where it occurs in drusy cavities in graniticrocks.[1][13] Amethyst was historically mined in many localities in south India,[1] though these are no longer significant producers.[13] One of the largest global amethyst producers is Zambia in southern Africa with an annual production of about 1000 tons.[20]

Amethyst occurs at many localities in the United States. The most important production is at Four Peaks, Gila and Maricopa Counties, Arizona, and Jackson's Crossroads, Wilkes County, Georgia.[13] Smaller occurrences have been reported in the Red Feather Lakes, near Fort Collins, Colorado; Amethyst Mountain, Texas; Yellowstone National Park; Delaware County, Pennsylvania; Haywood County, North Carolina; Deer Hill and Stow, Maine and in the Lake Superior region of Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan.[1] Amethyst is relatively common in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Nova Scotia. The largest amethyst mine in North America is located in Thunder Bay, Ontario.[13]

Amethyst is the official state gemstone of South Carolina. Several South Carolina amethysts are on display at the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History.[21]

History[edit]

Uninscribed amethyst scarab at the center of a string of amethyst ball beads. Middle Kingdom. From Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London

Amethyst was used as a gemstone by the ancient Egyptians and was largely employed in antiquity for intaglio engraved gems.[22]

The Greeks believed amethyst gems could prevent intoxication,[23] while medieval European soldiers wore amethyst amulets as protection in battle in the belief that amethysts heal people and keep them cool-headed.[24] Beads of amethyst were found in Anglo-Saxon graves in England.[25]Anglican bishops wear an episcopal ring often set with an amethyst, an allusion to the description of the Apostles as "not drunk" at Pentecost in Acts 2:15.[26]

A large geode, or "amethyst-grotto", from near Santa Cruz in southern Brazil was presented at a 1902 exhibition in Düsseldorf, Germany.[1]

Synthetic amethyst[edit]

Synthetic (laboratory-grown) amethyst is produced by a synthesis method called hydrothermal growth, which grows the crystals inside a high-pressure autoclave.

Synthetic amethyst is made to imitate the best quality amethyst. Its chemical and physical properties are the same as that of natural amethyst and it can not be differentiated with absolute certainty without advanced gemmological testing (which is often cost-prohibitive). One test based on "Brazil law twinning" (a form of quartz twinning where right and left hand quartz structures are combined in a single crystal[27]) can be used to identify most synthetic amethyst rather easily. It is possible to synthesize twinned amethyst, but this type is not available in large quantities in the market.[6]

Treated amethyst is produced by gamma ray, X-ray or electron beam irradiation of clear quartz (rock crystal) which has been first doped with ferric impurities. Exposure to heat partially cancels the irradiation effects and amethyst generally becomes yellow or even green. Much of the citrine, cairngorm, or yellow quartz of jewelry is said to be merely "burnt amethyst".[1][28]

Cultural history[edit]

Ancient Greece[edit]

The Greek word "amethystos" may be translated as "not drunken", from Greek a-, "not" + methustos, "intoxicated". Amethyst was considered to be a strong antidote against drunkenness,[29] which is why wine goblets were often carved from it.[30] In his poem "L'Amethyste, ou les Amours de Bacchus et d'Amethyste" (Amethyst or the loves of Bacchus and Amethyste), the French poet Remy Belleau (1528–1577) invented a myth in which Bacchus, the god of intoxication, of wine, and grapes was pursuing a maiden named Amethyste, who refused his affections. Amethyste prayed to the gods to remain chaste, a prayer which the chaste goddess Diana answered, transforming her into a white stone. Humbled by Amethyste's desire to remain chaste, Bacchus poured wine over the stone as an offering, dyeing the crystals purple.[31][32]

Variations of the story include that Dionysus had been insulted by a mortal and swore to slay the next mortal who crossed his path, creating fierce tigers to carry out his wrath. The mortal turned out to be a beautiful young woman, Amethystos, who was on her way to pay tribute to Artemis. Her life was spared by Artemis, who transformed the maiden into a statue of pure crystalline quartz to protect her from the brutal claws. Dionysus wept tears of wine in remorse for his action at the sight of the beautiful statue. The god's tears then stained the quartz purple.[33]

This myth and its variations are not found in classical sources. However, the goddess Rhea does present Dionysus with an amethyst stone to preserve the wine-drinker's sanity in historical text.[34]

Other cultural associations[edit]

Tibetans consider amethyst sacred to the Buddha and make prayer beads from it.[35] Amethyst is considered the birthstone of February.[36] In the Middle Ages, it was considered a symbol of royalty and used to decorate English regalia.[36] In the Old World, amethyst was considered one of the Cardinal gems, in that it was one of the five gemstones considered precious above all others, until large deposits were found in Brazil.[37]

Value[edit]

Up until the 18th century, amethyst was included in the cardinal, or most valuable, gemstones (along with diamond, sapphire, ruby, and emerald). However, since the discovery of extensive deposits in locations such as Brazil, it has lost most of its value.[37]

Collectors look for depth of color, possibly with red flashes if cut conventionally.[38] As amethyst is readily available in large structures the value of the gem is not primarily defined by carat weight; this is different from most gemstones where the carat weight exponentially increases the value of the stone. The biggest factor in the value of amethyst is the color displayed.[39]

The highest-grade amethyst (called "Deep Russian") is exceptionally rare and therefore, when one is found, its value is dependent on the demand of collectors. It is, however, still orders of magnitude cheaper than the highest-grade sapphires or rubies.[6]

See also[edit]

Améthystre sceptre2.jpg Minerals portal

References[edit]

  1. ^ abcdefg One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Rudler, Frederick William (1911). "Amethyst". In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 852.
  2. ^Norman N. Greenwood and Alan Earnshaw (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth–Heinemann. ISBN 0080379419.
  3. ^ abFernando S. Lameiras; Eduardo H. M. Nunes; Wander L. Vasconcelos (2009). "Infrared and Chemical Characterization of Natural Amethysts and Prasiolites Colored by Irradiation". Materials Research. 12 (3): 315–320. doi:10.1590/S1516-14392009000300011.
  4. ^ abcdMichael O'Donoghue (2006), Gems, Butterworth-Heinemann, 6th ed. ISBN 978-0-7506-5856-0
  5. ^"Amethyst: The world's most popular purple gemstone". geology.com. Retrieved August 29, 2017.
  6. ^ abcRichard W. Wise (2005), Secrets of the Gem Trade; The Connoisseur's Guide to Precious Gemstones, Brunswick House Press, Lenox, Mass., ISBN 0-9728223-8-0
  7. ^Arem, Joel E.; Clark, Donald; Smigel, Barbara. "Amethyst Value, Price, and Jewelry Information". International Gem Society. Retrieved April 20, 2021.
  8. ^"Prasiolite gemstone information". www.gemdat.org. Retrieved April 19, 2018.
  9. ^Lowell, J.; Koivula, J.I. (2004). "Amethyst from four peaks, Arizona"(PDF). Gems & Gemology. 40 (3): 230–238. doi:10.5741/GEMS.40.3.230. Retrieved April 20, 2021.
  10. ^Troilo, Fabrizio; El Harfi, Abdelghani; Mouaddib, Salahaddine; Bitarello, Erica; Costa, Emanuele (May 1, 2015). "Amethyst from Boudi, Morocco". Gems & Gemology. 51 (1): 32–40. doi:10.5741/GEMS.51.1.32.
  11. ^George R. Rossman (1994). "Ch.13. Colored Varieties of the Silica Minerals". In Peter J. Heaney; Charles T. Prewitt; Gerald V. Gibbs (eds.). Silica: physical behavior, geochemistry, and materials applications. Mineralogical Magazine. Reviews in Mineralogy. 29. Mineralogical Society of America. pp. 433–468. Bibcode:1996MinM...60..390H. doi:10.1180/minmag.1996.060.399.16. ISBN . S2CID 201093227.
  12. ^Amethyst. Mindat.org
  13. ^ abcdefgShigley, J.E.; Laurs, B.M.; Janse, A.J.A.; Elen, S.; Dirlam, D.M. (2010). "Gem Localities of the 2000s"(PDF). Gems & Gemology. 46 (3): 188–216. doi:10.5741/GEMS.46.3.188. Retrieved April 20, 2021.
  14. ^Algumas Gemas Clássicas
  15. ^Rio Grande do Sul: o maior exportador de pedras preciosas do Brasil
  16. ^Os alemães e as pedras preciosas gaúchas
  17. ^Maior pedra de água-marinha é brasileira e ficará exposta nos EUA
  18. ^Pedras de Ametista são atrativos para turistas em cidade no norte do Rio Grande do Sul
  19. ^Yang, K. H.; Yun, S. H.; Lee, J. D. (2001). "A fluid inclusion study of an amethyst deposit in the Cretaceous Kyongsang Basin, South Korea". Mineralogical Magazine. 65 (4): 477–487. Bibcode:2001MinM...65..477Y. doi:10.1180/002646101750377515. S2CID 129368598. Retrieved April 20, 2021.
  20. ^Anckar, B. (2006). "Amethyst Mining in Zambia". Gems & Gemology. 42 (3): 112–113.
  21. ^South Carolina State Gemstone - Amethyst. Sciway.net (1969-06-24). Retrieved on 2016-02-04.
  22. ^Augosto Castellani (famous Italian 19th century jeweler) (1871), Gems, Notes and Extracts, p. 34, London, Bell and Daldy, ISBN 1-141-06174-0.
  23. ^Marcell N. Smith (1913), Diamonds, Pearls and Precious Stones Griffith Stillings Press, Boston, Mass., p. 74
  24. ^George Frederick Kunz (1913), Curious Lore of Precious Stones, Lippincott Company, Philadelphia & London, p. 77
  25. ^Michael Lapidge (ed.) (2000), The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England, p. 261, ISBN 0631224920.
  26. ^Bays, P. (2012). This Anglican Church of Ours. Woodlake Book. p. 136. ISBN .
  27. ^"Quartz Page Twinning Crystals". quartzpage.de.
  28. ^Michael O'Donoghue (1997). Synthetic, Imitation, and Treated Gemstones. Taylor & Francis. pp. 124–125. ISBN .
  29. ^See, for example:
    • The earliest reference to amethyst as a symbol of sobriety is in a poem by Asclepiades of Samos (born ≈320 BCE). See "XXX. Kleopatra's Ring" in: Edward Storer, trans., The Windflowers of Asklepiades and the Poems of Poseidippos (London, England: Egoist Press, 1920), page 14.
    • An epigram by "Plato the Younger" also mentions amethyst in connection with drinking: "The stone is an amethyst; but I, the tipler Dionysus, say, "Let it either persuade me to be sober, or let it learn to get drunk." See George Burges et al., The Greek Anthology,... (London, England: George Bell and Sons, 1881), p. 369.
    • Pliny says about amethysts: "The falsehoods of the magicians would persuade us that these stones are preventive of inebriety, and that it is from this that they have derived their name." See Chapter 40 of Book 37 of Pliny the Elder's The Natural History.
  30. ^Federman, David (2012). Modern Jeweler's Consumer Guide to Colored Gemstones. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 28–. ISBN .
  31. ^The "myth" of Amethyste and Bacchus was invented by the French poet Remy Belleau (1528–1577). See "L'Amethyste, ou les Amours de Bacchus et d'Amethyste" from Belleau's collection of poems "Les Amours et Nouveaux Eschanges des Pierres Precieuses: Vertus & Proprietez d'icelles" (The loves and new transformations of the precious stones: their virtues and properties), which was published in Remy Belleau, Les Amours et Nouveaux Eschanges des Pierres Precieuses... (Paris, France: Mamert Patisson, 1576), pp. 4–6.
  32. ^George Frederick Kunz (1913). Curious Lore of Precious Stones. pp. 58–59.
  33. ^The amethyst, Gemstone.org
  34. ^Nonnus, Dionysiaca, 12. 380
  35. ^Tropical Gemstones, by Carol Clark p.52
  36. ^ abFebruary Birthstone | Amethyst. Americangemsociety.org (2016-01-12). Retrieved on 2016-02-04.
  37. ^ abGeary, T.F.; Whalen, D. (2008). The Illustrated Bead Bible: Terms, Tips & Techniques. Sterling Pub. p. 69. ISBN . Archived from the original on January 16, 2021. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
  38. ^THE GEMSTONE BOOK Gemstones, Organic Substances & Artificial Products — Terminology & Classification(PDF). The World Jewellery Confideration (CIBJO). 2012. Archived from the original(PDF) on August 12, 2012. Retrieved June 27, 2012.
  39. ^"Amethyst Jewelry and Gemstones Information - International Gem Society IGS". gemsociety.org. Retrieved October 3, 2014.
Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amethyst

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