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A Brief History of the Jeep CJ Series – Everything You Need To Know

First There Was the “Blitz Buggy” and a War to Win

The beginning of the Jeep CJ dates back to the origin of the “Jeep” itself, a story that began on 11th July 1940 when the US Department of War sent out an urgent request for a manufacturer to design and build a prototype quarter ton four wheel drive “scout car” within 49 days, and to produce an initial run of 70 vehicles within 75 days.

All this urgency had been caused by Time Magazine’s “Man of the Year” for 1938 who had gone on to start a war in Europe in 1939 when he sent his troops on a Blitzkrieg invasion of Poland.

Only American Bantam, which had originally been called American Austin and had in its past been a branch of Austin of England, stepped up to the plate and produced a design, a prototype, and an initial production run of their “Bantam Reconnaissance Vehicle (BRC), otherwise soon to be known as the “Blitz Buggy” because its planned use was to be in turning the Nazi Blitzkrieg tactic back against them, not on its own of course, but in concert with tanks, aircraft and all the materiel of mechanized warfare.

American Bantam Blitz Buggy Jeep

In the events that followed the American Bantam design would be given to Ford and Willys and they would go on to create their own General Purpose scout cars based on the American Bantam prototype, and by the war’s end it would be Willys-Overland who continued production of the diminutive general purpose scout car that had come to be called the “Jeep“.

The American Bantam design did not only father the Jeep, but it also went on to be the design inspiration for Britain’s Land Rover and also for the Japanese Toyota Land Cruiser.

A Jeep for the Civilian Market

The earliest beginning of civilian use for the Jeep was begun in 1942 by the US Department of Agriculture. They tested both Willys and Ford versions of the Jeep in typical farming applications at their facility in Alabama and found that they actually worked surprisingly well in the role of farm tractor as well as being a general purpose vehicle.

For tractor work they needed lower gearing and a draw-bar, and the clutch would need beefing up, but otherwise they had great potential.

Jeep CJ Netherlands

Aware of this, and also aware that  the Jeep had become a much appreciated vehicle by servicemen, Willys-Overland could see the sales potential of a “Civilian Jeep” and by 1944 they began work on creating one.

Beginning with the existing military MB Jeep the guys of Willys design and engineering departments began creating prototypes which reportedly included such fittings as a canvas top, a draw-bar, and a tail-gate. This is generally known as the “CJ-1” although it never entered production and the number and exact design specifications remain unknown to the present day.

The Prototype Jeep CJ-2 and CJ-2A (1944-1949)

Work on the Jeep CJ-1 first generation prototypes developed into what became known as the CJ-2 second generation in 1944. Willys thinking appears to have been to create an agricultural civilian Jeep and it was in December 1944 that they were granted the trademark “AGRIJEEP”.

This name would appear on a dashboard plate of some of the Jeep CJ-2 prototypes. These CJ-2 prototypes were not available for retail sale but about 40-45 were constructed and trialed. The CJ-2 prototypes were fitted out with reference to the Department of Agriculture recommendations which included their being fitted with tail-gate, draw-bar and a range of mechanical and dimensional changes.

Jeep CJ2 agriculture plow

The bodywork changes made to the CJ-2 also included the rear wheel-wells being changed so the front seats could be enlarged and moved rearwards so that tall drivers could be comfortable, re-locating the spare wheel to the side of the vehicle, and both full and half canvas tops: the half canvas top leaving the load area at the rear exposed while the front two seats were under cover. The body also had driver’s side tool indentations.

Mechanical changes were varied but commonly included the axle gearing being lowered from the military 4.88:1 down to a more agricultural 5.38:1, and the Model 18 transfer case gearing also being changed from 1.97:1 down to 2.43:1. The gearbox was changed from the three speed T-84 to a stronger T-90 which used a column shift instead of the military floor shift. The clutch was also upgraded to an 8½” unit.

The 60hp  “Go-Devil” engine was treated to a different carburetor and ignition system, and for power take-off use a King-Seeley engine governor was fitted. The power take-off was left facing.

One of the most visual differences on these CJ-2 Jeeps was the fitting of large cast brass “Jeep” badges on many of the early ones, located on the windscreen cowl, either side of the hood/bonnet, and on the rear. Willys began trying to trademark the “Jeep” name as early as 1943 and were up against opposition from Amercian Bantam, so they used the “Jeep” name prominently on the CJ-2 vehicles as a proof of usage.

As it turned out Willys did not actually manage to take ownership of the Jeep name until 1950, after American Bantam had gone out of business. Later CJ-2 had the cast brass badges replaced with “Jeep” stamped into the bodywork, such as into the windscreen cowl.

Universal Jeep

The follow on model from the CJ-2 was the CJ-2A which went into production on July 17th, 1945. This was the first full production civilian Jeep and it was designated as the Willys-Overland CJ-2A “Universal Jeep”.

Although the trademark “AGRIJEEP” had been granted in 1944 Willys decided not to use it but rather went with “Universal Jeep” so as not to limit its market. This was still very much a model that needed to test the waters to see just who would be lining up to buy these useful little vehicles.

The CJ-2A had a seven slot front grille and headlights mounted onto the front panel rather than recessed into it: for a practical civilian vehicle everything done to make things easy to remove and repair was going to be appreciated by hands-on practical customers. Otherwise the CJ-2A was equipped as per the specifications of the pilot series CJ-2 complete with L-184 “Go-Devil” engine and T-90 gearbox.

The CJ-2A base model was fitted only with a driver’s seat, a single vacuum operated windscreen wiper on the driver’s side, a hand operated single windscreen wiper on the passenger side, and a rear view mirror on the driver’s side. To equip the base model for the customer’s use a comprehensive list of optional equipment was available which included a front passenger seat, rear seat, center rear view mirror, either half or full canvas top, front and/or rear power take-off, belt pulley drive, capstan winch, King-Seeley engine governor, rear hydraulic lift, snow plow, generator, arc welder, mower, heavy duty springs, twin vacuum actuated windscreen wipers, heavy duty hot climate radiator, radiator brush guard, chaff screen, driveshaft guards, and dual tail-lights.

For agricultural use the CJ-2A was also offered with a 265lb weight mounted behind the front bumper to balance the vehicle for plowing. The prototype CJ-2 had been fitted with four optional weights adding up to about the same amount but mounted on the front bumper for this application.

Jeep CJ2

The CJ-2A models were painted in a variety of color schemes while the CJ-2 had been military olive drab. The earliest CJ-2A were built using left over parts for the Jeep MB, with this petering out around mid 1946 after which the Jeeps were made to a standard using parts made specifically for this model.

In total 214,760 Jeep CJ-2A were produced with production ending in 1949.

The Jeep CJ-3A and CJ-3B (1949-1968)

The CJ-3A was a slightly upgraded version of the CJ-2A. The engine, gearbox and transfer box remained the same with the vehicles having a Dana 25 front axle and a Dana 41 or 44 rear axle.

The windscreen was made as one piece with a vent at the bottom, and the wiper mechanisms were moved from the top of the windscreen to the bottom. The suspension was upgraded and the rear wheel-well was shortened which enabled moving the driver’s seat a couple of inches further to the rear for tall drivers. Also for tall drivers the roof height for the canvas top was raised and the waterproofing of the soft tops was improved.

The CJ-3A was in production up until 1953 and 131,843 were made.

Jeep CJ3 Hurricane engine

In 1953 Willys-Overland was bought by Kaiser Motors and they removed the “Overland” from the company name.

This was the year the Willys CJ-3B was introduced fitted with the more powerful F-head 134.2 cu. in. Hurricane engine, which produced 72hp @ 4,000rpm with 114lb/ft of torque @ 2,000rpm. This engine was of the same capacity as the “Go-Devil” but was physically taller and so required the hood/bonnet line to be raised up so it would fit, giving the CJ-3B a taller grille and hood and a distinctly different appearance.

The CJ-3B was made between 1953 and 1968 and 155,494 were made in the United States (a total of 196,000 if we include those made overseas in Turkey by Türk Willys, in India by Mahindra, and Spain by VIASA).

The Jeep CJ-5 and CJ-6 (1955-1983)

Despite the fact that it is usual for the debut of a new model to herald the end of production for the previous one this was not to be the case for the Jeep CJ-3B: it remained in production while the new CJ-5 and CJ-6 models made their way onto the showroom floor.

Willys, and their new owner Kaiser Motors were feeling their way with what the buying public would open their checkbooks for and so, as the old saying reminds us “If it ain’t broke don’t fix it”, they decided to keep the old and seemingly much loved older model going while they tested the waters with the new one. The sort of people who were buying the CJ-3B were not the sort of people who wanted change for change sake, in fact that was the sort of thinking they would not tolerate.

Although it would seem logical that the next production Jeep would be called the CJ-4 this was not to be the case. Just one prototype called the CJ-4 was made and it was a cross between a CJ-3 and the coming CJ-5. The vehicle was fitted with a Willys Hurricane engine and had a curved body style like that which would appear on the CJ-5.

The CJ-4 prototype was made sometime during 1950-1951 and was subsequently sold to an employee. What is interesting about that single CJ-4 prototype is that it shows Willys were looking to modernize the utilitarian Jeep with a view to making it more stylish. It would appear that they had realized that the Jeep was not just an agricultural/industrial utilitarian vehicle but that it had the potential to create a new sporting utility vehicle market.

Enzo Ferrari is reported to have said that “the Jeep was the only true American sports car” and we can see in Willys re-design the aim of turning this Second World War “Blitz Buggy” into a sports utility vehicle.

Jeep CJ5

The CJ-5 was the short wheelbase of this new sports version, with dimensions remaining similar to the previous model Jeeps, but the CJ-6 was a long wheelbase, from 1955-1972 measuring 101″, and from 1972-1985 103½”, a change made necessary to fit new larger engines under the hood. both versions featured comfortable fitting bucket seats and more stylish rounded bodywork, which was also made of thicker gauge steel giving the vehicles a solid and “built like a tank” look and feel about them.

Kaiser Willys began to differentiate the engine choices in the CJ-5 and CJ-6 when in 1961 they began to offer the British four cylinder Perkins 192 cu. in. (3.15 liter) diesel which produced 62hp @ 3,000rpm and 143 lb/ft of torque at 1,350 rpm. We suspect that Willys could see that for the British Land Rover the diesel engine was a quite popular choice, and the four cylinder Perkins had earned for itself a good name, especially among commercial vehicle operators. So, rather than spending the significant sums of money required to design an engine of their own Willys bought engines with a known track record and support network for their CJ-5 and CJ-6.

It took a full ten years from the introduction of the CJ-5 and CJ-6 before Kaiser Willys were willing to take the gamble and begin to offer more sports oriented engines for their new sporty CJ-5 and CJ-6. 1965 was the year that Kaiser purchased the rights from Buick to manufacture their 225 cu. in. (3.7 liter) V6 “Dauntless” engine which churned out a whopping 155hp, about double the power of the four cylinder Hurricane engine. The gamble paid off and within three years three quarters of the CJ-5 and CJ-6 vehicles sold were equipped with that Dauntless engine: Jeep customers liked power!

During this time Willys began offering the Jeep with power steering, something that made maneuvering the weight of that V6 rather more easy.

1970 saw Kaiser Willys being purchased by American Motors Corporation (AMC) and the new owners decided they wanted to phase out the use of engines from other manufacturers and instead to fit their own. AMC had a different vision for the humble Jeep and that vision was for it to cease to be an agricultural and industrial workhorse, and instead for it to become a trendy sports vehicle.

AMC were keen for the Jeep to become something trendy like the Volkswagen Beetle but without the nasty Nazi skeleton in the closet: and for the surfing aficionados the Jeep would be a lot less likely to get bogged in the beach sand than a Volkswagen.

Jeep CJ5

So it was that in 1971 GM Buick purchased their manufacturing rights back from AMC and, undaunted, used their freshly re-acquired “Dauntless” engine in some vehicles of their own. For 1972 the AMC “Torque Command” straight six cylinder 232 cu. in. (3.8) engine supplanted the aging “Hurricane” four, and for those in “California Dreamin'” the larger 258 cu. in. (4.2 liter) was the standard (optional elsewhere), both engines breathing through a single-barrel Carter YF carburetor.

Not only were the new big six cylinder engines installed as standard in the new sporty Jeep models AMC also offered their 304 cu. in. (5.0 liters) V8 for those with a “need for speed” and a wallet deep enough to keep the thirsty little gas guzzler from emptying its fuel tank. The V8 gave the once agricultural Jeep the power to weight ratio of a muscle car, albeit with a rather higher center of gravity, but no doubt there were those who took their Jeeps to the local drag strip to find out what they’d do.

Structurally the car was changed significantly for the fitting of the new engines. The open box-frame chassis was given six riveted cross members for additional rigidity. The wheelbase was increased from 81″ to 83.5″ while the fenders and hood grew by 5″. The firewall was moved 2″ rearwards and a new larger fuel tank was fitted at the rear between the frame rails, replacing the original one that had been under the drivers seat.

For the CJ-5 and CJ-6 the “Powr-Lok” limited slip differential was upgraded to the “Trac-Lok” in 1971 and, because a power take-off would not be needed on a sports vehicle, it was omitted from the list of options, no doubt to the annoyance of some potential customers. But on the plus side the more powerful Jeep was treated to a 25lb lighter but stronger Dana 30 fully floating open knuckle front axle which gave the vehicle a 6′ smaller turning circle.

1973 saw the new AMC “Quadra-Trac” full time four wheel drive system fitted, This system featured a center lockable differential and of course also continued to provide high and low range gears. In 1975 for the 1976 model year the CJ-5 and CJ-6 were upgraded again. The open box frame chassis was mostly boxed in and the cross members were welded and the side-rails were of heavier gauge steel. Changes to the dashboard included a single combined speedometer, temperature and fuel gauge with the option of a steering column mounted tachometer, or a factory fitted AM radio. For those in cold climates a “Cold Climate Package” was offered which provided an engine block heater for those who were living or traveling in areas where freezing of the engine oil and coolant were all too real probabilities.

1979 was the year the base model engine was changed to the 258 cu. in. (4.2 liter) in-line six cylinder breathing through a twin barrel Carter carburetor.

Jeep CJ5 Golden Eagle

The CJ-5 and CJ-6 were made in a veritable plethora of special editions, essentially to promote the vehicle as something sporty and stylish, and in an effort to be constantly coming up with “and now for something completely different” to appeal to the checkbooks of an American public which AMC appears to have believed constantly needed new pretty temptations.

These various special editions included the four versions of the “Tuxedo Park” between 1961 and 1965, a “Camper” for 1969-1970 and a 462 performance package also for 1969, three versions of the “Renegade” from 1971 to 1983, the 1973 “Super Jeep”, 1977-1983 “Golden Eagle”, the 1979 “Silver Anniversary” one thousand units limited edition commemorating the CJ-5’s 25th Anniversary, the 1980 “Golden Hawk” and the 1980-1983 “Laredo”.

The Jeep CJ-7 (1976-1986)

The CJ-7 was to be the last of the line for the Jeeps that could trace their lineage from the World War II Jeep. The CJ-7 was ten inches longer than its CJ-5 sibling with a wheelbase of 93½” and underneath that longer and more curved bodywork was a new chassis design consisting of two parallel longitudinal rails stepped out at the rear to put the suspension as far out as possible for stability. The CJ-5 had received some negative publicity from those claiming it was prone to rollover, which it arguably wasn’t, certainly not more than any other vehicle that featured the necessary off-road ground clearance with the resulting higher center of gravity.

Jeep CJ7

The CJ-7 was made for a modern generation of American consumers who were getting more and more used to manufacturers making life more easy for them. It was available with either manual or automatic gearbox, both mated to the Quadra-Trac all wheel drive system with high and low range so you could “climb every mountain” or highway cruise on Route 66 with equal aplomb: and if the going got muddy or the way was treacherous and icy then that full time four wheel drive helped keep the Jeep going where the driver was pointing it instead of demonstrating an ability to do a pirouette like a ballerina.

Jeep CJ7

The CJ-7 was made in various special editions also including the Renegade, Golden Eagle, Golden Hawk, Laredo, and Limited. The last special edition was the Jamboree Commemorative Edition made for the 30th Anniversary of the Rubicon Trail.

The Jamboree Commemorative holds the title for being the most heavily optioned up Jeep ever made, at least up to that point. That last special edition was fitted with a dashboard plaque that read “Last of a Great Breed – This collectors-edition CJ ends an era that began with the legendary Jeep of World War II”.

The Jeep CJ-8 “Scrambler” (1981-1986)

The Jeep CJ-8, otherwise known as the Jeep Scrambler is perhaps most famous as President Ronald Reagan’s Jeep. This model was a long wheelbase version of the CJ-7 and so it also shared the distinction of being one of the last of the Jeeps that began with the World War II ones. In production from 1981 until 1986.

The CJ-8 Jeep Scrambler was arguably one of the most adaptable and practical of all the Jeeps ever made. The cab top was removable and the rear section was not a flat tray but rather a utility box, with the vehicle also coming with a roll bar just behind the driver and passenger seats.

Jeep CJ8 Ronald Reagan

This very practical Jeep was fitted with an old fashioned part time four wheel drive system, complete with front free-wheeling/locking hubs. This would have been done to optimize the vehicle’s highway fuel consumption. The usual gearbox was either a four speed or five speed manual with the three speed automatic being an option.

Jeep CJ8 Scrambler

The End of a Story that is Not Yet Over

The CJ-8 was the end of the line for the Civilian Jeeps, the last of the breed that had begun in the dark days of 1940 when the US Department of War realized that the thing they had been hoping against hope to avoid was coming upon them like a freight train with no brakes.

It had been American Bantam who had stepped up to the plate and come up with the design for a vehicle that would not only help win the war, but that would go on to create a new concept for civilian vehicles, the four wheel drive. The American Bantam “Bantam Reconnaissance Car” would go on to be the father not only of the Willys Jeep in both military and civilian models, but also the British Land Rover, and the Japanese Toyota Land Cruiser.

The Civilian Jeep in all the “CJ” models was the American car that carried the flag and brought four wheel drive freedom and adventure to hundreds of thousands of people. It was a farm vehicle, mining vehicle, government vehicle, sports car, fishing and shooting wagon, and fashion icon, and it was even transport for a US President. It was and still is the car that best epitomizes “The Land of the Free”.

Jeep CJ the great escape

Picture Credits: Willys, Kaiser, AMC, Ronald Reagan Library, Netherlands National Archive.

Jon-Branch-Author-Profile-Image

Jon Branch

Jon Branch has written countless official automobile Buying Guides for eBay Motors over the years, he’s also written for Hagerty, he’s a long time contributor to Silodrome and the official SSAA Magazine, and he’s the founder and senior editor of Revivaler.

Jon has done radio, television, magazine, and newspaper interviews on various issues, and has traveled extensively, having lived in Britain, Australia, China, and Hong Kong. The fastest thing he’s ever driven was a Bolwell Nagari, the slowest was a Caterpillar D9, and the most challenging was a 1950’s MAN semi-trailer with unexpected brake failure.


Sours: https://silodrome.com/history-jeep-cj/

Jeep CJ Models Parts

The Jeep CJModels is a compact sport utility vehicle manufactured during the years 1944-1986. Jeep is one of the most popular automobile manufacturers in the world. It was established in 1941 and has its headquarters in the United States. The brands first vehicle, the CJ-2A, was released in 1944. The 1950s saw the launch of the CJ-3B and CJ-5. The CJ-5 was the only vehicle to be produced for a very long time (30 years). The V6 engine was introduced in the Jeeps for the first time in 1965. There were a line of successful cars released in the 1970s following AMC's takeover like the CJ-7, Scrambler, Cherokee and Wrangler. The firm was purchased by Chrysler Group LLC in 1987. The Grand Cherokee was the first vehicle to be released after Chrysler's purchase.

The Jeep CJ Models was rolled out in thirteen generations under different version names: 1944, 1944-45, 1945-49, 1949-53, 1951-53, 1953-68, 1954-83, 1955-75, 1964-68, 1976-86, 1981-85 and 1984-86. The CJ-2 was equipped with a 2.2L engine and a 3-speed manual transmission. Cars of this model were available as 2-door SUVs and 2door convertibles. The final version of the CJ, the CJ-10A, featured a 3.2L engine.

Buy Auto Parts stocks a large selection of high-quality Jeep CJ Models parts like the clutch kits and pitman arms. If any of your Jeep CJ Models parts are not functioning properly, you must replace them as soon as possible. At Buy Auto Parts you will find a wide variety of auto parts for every car make and model. All our car parts are tested thoroughly and come with an industry leading warranty and free shipping! Our genuine OEM replacements and premium aftermarket parts are available at unbeatable prices. Take a look at the full list below for all of the CJ Models replacement parts we carry. If you do not see the part you need give us a call and we can find it for you.

To find the car parts that you need, just select the right year, make and model of your car on our online catalog. As we have warehouses all across the US, Buy Auto Parts will make sure your orders are delivered on time.

Taking care of our customers is our top priority, and our great online customer reviews prove this. To find out more about our services and car parts, call our toll-free support line at 1-888-907-7225 or mail us at [email protected]. Our US-based sales and support teams are here to answer all your questions regarding our car parts.

Sours: https://www.buyautoparts.com/autoparts/jeep/cj_models
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Jeep CJ

Motor vehicle

Jeep CJ
1945-49 Willys CJ-2A (8516773565).jpg

Jeep CJ-2A

Manufacturer
Production1944-1986
More than 1.5 million[1]
Assembly
ClassCompact sport utility vehicle
Body style
LayoutFront engine, rear-wheel drive / four-wheel drive
Predecessor
Successor

The Jeep CJ models are both a series and a range of small, open-bodied off-road vehicles and compact pickup trucks, built and sold by several successive incarnations of the Jeepautomobile marque from 1945 to 1986. The 1945 Willys Jeep was the world's first mass-produced civilian four-wheel drive car.

In 1944, Willys-Overland, one of the two main manufacturers of the World War II military Jeep, built the first prototypes for a commercial version – the CJ, short for "civilian Jeep".[2] From then on, all CJ Jeeps consistently had a separate body and frame, rigid live axles with leaf springs both front and rear, a tapering nose design with flared fenders, and a fold-flat windshield, and could be driven without doors. Also, with few exceptions, they had part-time four-wheel drive systems, with the choice of high and low gearing, and open bodies with removable hard or soft tops.

After remaining in production through a range of model numbers, and several corporate parents, the Jeep CJ line was officially ended in 1986. More than 1.5 million CJ Jeeps were built, having continued the same basic body style for 45 years since the Jeep first appeared.[1] Widely regarded as "America's workhorse", the CJs have been described as "probably the most successful utility vehicle ever made."[3] American Motors VP Joseph Cappy said the end of "CJ production will signal an end of a very important era in Jeep history."[4] The Jeep CJ-7 was replaced in 1987 by the similar-looking Jeep Wrangler.

The similar model, the DJ "Dispatcher" was introduced in 1956 as a two-wheel drive version with open, fabric, or a closed steel body in both left- and right-hand drives for hotel, resort, police, and later United States Postal Service markets.[5][6]

CJ-1[edit]

Motor vehicle

Willys-Overland CJ-1
Production1944
RelatedWillys MB

In 1942, the US Department of Agriculture tested the MB. By 1944, the Allies were confident the war would be won, and wartime production looked to be winding down. This allowed Willys to consider designing a Jeep for the postwar civilian market. Documentation is scarce, but in early 1944, Willys seemed to have found time to start drawing up plans, and one or two prototypes dubbed CJ(-1), for "Civilian Jeep", were running by May of that year. The first CJs had apparently been created by quick modification of the regular military MB, adding a tailgate, lower gearing, a drawbar, and a civilian-style canvas top. The first CJ served as a quick proof-of-concept test, and when a further design evolution materialized, probably became the CJ-1 by default.[7] They were manufactured until the CJ-2s appeared, and they were the first Jeeps built from the ground up for civilian use.

No CJ-1s built have survived, and how many were made is unknown.[8]

CJ-2[edit]

Motor vehicle

Although at least 40 were built, the Willys-Overland CJ-2 was not available for retail sale. The CJ-2s, also known as "AgriJeeps",[10] were the second-generation prototypes for the first production civilian Jeep, and were used solely for testing purposes. Although their design was directly based on the military Willys MB, using the same Willys Go Devil engine — they were not only stripped of all military features, particularly the blackout lighting, but also the CJ-2s had many significant differences in body features and construction versus the military Jeep.[7] They had tailgates, power take-offs, engine governors ($28.65),[9] column-shift T90 manual transmissions, 5.38 gears, 2.43:1 low-range transfer cases, and driver's-side tool indentations. Rear wheelwells were redesigned so that seats could be enlarged, improved, and moved rearward, and new, more weathertight top designs were tried. A canvas half-top with roll-down doors was one of several top designs tried before production.[7] The CJ-2 Go-Devil L-head engine was largely the same as the wartime Jeep, but used a different carburetor and ignition system.

The CJ-2s were built in two main batches, but even within the two groups, each was a little different, as they evolved and were modified for various types of work. For instance a number of experimental combinations of powertrain components were tested. Earlier models were dubbed “pilot models” because they still had so many differences from the production Jeeps. They were painted olive-drab, and had brass “JEEP” badges on the windshield base, the hood sides, and the rear. Some CJ-2s also had an "AgriJeep" plaque fixed to the dash.[citation needed] Later models were stamped "JEEP" and were painted in a few civilian colors that translated into the "WILLYS" stamping and the colors that appeared on the first production CJ-2A Jeeps built from 1945.[7] The spare tire was mounted forward of the passenger-side rear wheel on the earlier models and aft of the rear wheel on later ones. The CJ-2s were likely distributed to "agricultural stations" for evaluation purposes.

Of the 40–45 CJ-2s built, serial numbers CJ2-03, CJ2-04, CJ2-06 (X30), CJ2-09 (X33), CJ2-11, CJ2-12, CJ2-14, CJ2-16, CJ2-26, CJ2-29, CJ2-32 (X56), CJ2-37 (X61), and CJ2-38 (X62)[11] have survived, although some in very rough condition.[citation needed] CJ2-06 and CJ2-09 have been restored.[7][8]

CJ-2A[edit]

Motor vehicle

1946 advertisement marketed the "UniversalJeep", not mentioning the CJ-2A type-code yet
Pasture Green with Autumn Yellow wheels was one of the first two original color choices
Jeep demonstration for farming and industry – Netherlands, 1946

The lessons learned with the CJ-2 led to the development of the first full-production CJ, the 1945-1949 Willys-Overland CJ-2A, or Universal Jeep. A trademark for "AGRIJEEP" was granted in December 1944, but was not used.[7] The CJ-2A looked very much like a civilianized MB with a tailgate and side-mounted spare wheel. A distinct difference between the MB and the CJ-2A lay in the grilles of the two vehicles. Where the MB had recessed headlights and nine-slot grilles, the CJ-2A had larger, slightly bulging headlights, flush-mounted in a seven-slot grille. While still powered by the reliable L-134 Go-Devil engine, the CJ-2A replaced the MB's T-84 transmission with a beefier T-90 three-speed.

Production of the CJ-2A started on 17 July 1945, sharing production time with the MB – roughly 9000 more MBs were produced through September 1945.[16] Many of the early CJ-2As were produced using remaining stock of the military jeep components such as engine blocks, and in a few cases, modified frames. Up to serial no. 13453, the MB-style full floating rear axle was fitted. Once they were used up, the CJ got a stronger Dana / Spicer model 41.[16] Sometimes the use of MB parts was due to strikes at suppliers, such as Autolite. Since Willys produced few parts in-house and relied heavily on suppliers, it was vulnerable to strikes. Unfortunately for Willys, strikes were common after the war, and this likely contributed to low production totals in 1945 and early 1946.

Since the CJ-2A was primarily intended for farming, ranching, and industrial applications, stock CJ-2As only came with a driver seat and driver side mirror, and a wide variety of options was available, such as: front passenger seat, rear seat, center rear-view mirror, canvas top, front power take-off (PTO), rear PTO, belt pulley drive, capstan winch, governor, rear hydraulic lift, snow plow, welder, generator,[12] mower, disc, front bumper weight, heavy-duty springs, dual vacuum windshield wipers (stock CJ-2As were equipped with a manual wiper on the passenger side and a vacuum wiper on the driver side), dual taillights (stock CJ-2As had a taillight on the driver side and a reflector on the passenger side), hot-climate radiator, driveshaft guards, heater, side steps, and radiator brush guard.

The CJ-2As were produced in lively color combinations that in some ways symbolized the hope and promise of postwar America. True to their intended purpose, the combinations also resembled those used by the most popular farm equipment manufacturers of the day. From 1945 to mid-1946, CJ-2As were only available in two color combinations: Pasture Green with Autumn Yellow wheels and Harvest Tan with Sunset Red wheels. Additional color combinations added in mid-1946 were: Princeton Black with Harvard Red or Sunset Red wheels, Michigan Yellow with Pasture Green, Sunset Red or Americar Black wheels, Normandy Blue with Autumn Yellow or Sunset Red wheels, and Harvard Red with Autumn Yellow or Americar Black wheels. The Pasture Green and Harvest Tan combinations were dropped later in 1946. The Harvard Red combinations were dropped in 1947 and replaced with Picket Gray with Harvard Red wheels, and Luzon Red with Universal Beige wheels. In 1948, these color combinations were also added: Emerald Green with Universal Beige wheels, Potomac Gray with Harvard Red or American Black wheels. For 1949, the Picket Gray, Michigan Yellow, and Normandy Blue combinations were dropped. Olive drab was also available for export models.

On early CJ-2As, the front seats were covered in olive-drab vinyl. Around mid-1947, Slate Gray vinyl became available for certain color combinations. Later, Barcelona Red was added to the mix.

A total of 214,760 CJ-2As were produced. Because of the use of military production parts on the earliest CJ-2As, and the many changes made during its early production, restorers and collectors refer to CJ-2As up to around serial no. 34,530 as "Very Early Civilian" and from mid-1946 to about mid-1947 as "Early Civilian". Only minor changes were made after the mid-1947 models.[16]

CJ-3A[edit]

Motor vehicle

The Willys-Overland CJ-3A was introduced in 1949, and was in production until 1953, when replaced by the CJ-3B. It was powered by Willys' 60 hp (45 kW; 61 PS) L-134 Go-Devil four-cylinder engine, with a T-90 transmission and Dana 18 transfer case, a Dana 25 front axle and Dana 41 or 44 rear axle. It featured a one-piece windshield with a vent, and wipers at the bottom. The CJ-3A had beefed-up suspension (10 leaf) to accommodate the various agricultural implements that were being built for the vehicle.[19] Another difference was a shorter rear wheelwell (the wheelwell from the top front edge to the rear of the body is 32 in (810 mm) on the 3A compared to 34 in (860 mm) on the 2A) and moving the driver's seat rearward.[20] As of 1951, a Farm Jeep and a Jeep Tractor version were offered; the latter was very bare-bones, for field use only, and featured a power takeoff.[21]

In total, 131,843 CJ-3As were produced before the series ended in 1953. About 550 of the CJ3-As were assembled by Mitsubishi as the J1/J2 in late 1952 and early 1953, exclusively for the Japanese police and forestry agency.[22]

The CJ-3A-derived military jeep was the Willys MC (or M38), and it began complementing the Ford and Willys World War II jeeps starting in 1949.

1951 CJ-3A military version

CJ-4[edit]

Motor vehicle

Willys-Overland CJ-4
Production
Engine134 cu in (2.2 L) Hurricane I4
Wheelbase81 in (2,057 mm)

The Willys-Overland CJ-4 or "X-151" was only built as an experimental concept in 1950 or 1951.[23] It used the new Willys Hurricane engine and had an 81 in (2,057 mm) wheelbase. The CJ-4 body tub was an intermediate design between the straightforward raised hood from the CJ-3B and the all new curved body style of the CJ-5. The design was rejected and the vehicle was eventually sold to a factory employee.[24]

Evidence has surfaced, that derived prototypes called CJ-4M and CJ-4MA (XM170) have also been seriously considered, as precursors to the 1951 M38A1 and M170 military Jeeps. Although the CJ-4M prototype may not have been actually built,[25] the stretched wheelbase ambulance prototype with registration "CJ-4MA-01" turned up in 2005.[26]

CJ-3B[edit]

Motor vehicle

Willys CJ-3B
Willyjeep01.jpg
Production1953-1968
RelatedWillys M606
Engine134 cu in (2.2 L) Hurricane I4
Wheelbase80 in (2,032 mm)[27]
Length129.875 in (3,299 mm)[12]

The Willys CJ-3B replaced the CJ-3A in 1953, the same year Willys-Overland was bought by Kaiser Motors. The Kaiser parent company removed "Overland" from the Willys Motors subcompany name. The CJ-3B introduced a higher grille and hood to clear the new Willys Hurricane engine. A four-speed manual transmission became optional in 1963, at an extra cost of $194.[12] The turning radius was 17.5 ft (5.3 m).[28] Until 1968, about 196,000 CJ-3Bs were produced, of which 155,494 were assembled in the U.S.[29][30]

The CJ-3B was turned into the M606 military jeep (mostly used for export, through 1968) by equipping it with commercially available heavy-duty options, such as larger tires and springs, and by adding black-out lighting, olive drab paint, and a trailer hitch. Shipments of the M606 militarized version of the Jeep CJ-3B, exported for military aid under the Mutual Defense Assistance Program, accounted for a substantial percentage of the limited CJ-3B production in the 1960s.[29]

International licenses and derivatives[edit]

The CJ-3B design was also licensed to a number of international manufacturers, which produced a civilian and military variants long after 1968, including Mitsubishi of Japan and Mahindra of India. Mitsubishi's version was built from 1953 until 1998, while Mahindra continued to produce vehicles based on the Willys CJ-3B until October 1, 2010. The CJ-3B was also built by Türk Willys Overland in Tuzla county of Kocaeli city. It was the first off-road vehicle plant to be opened in Turkey, in 1954. It was produced under Tuzla 1013 brand.[31] Mahindra's "Mahindra CJ" produced in two versions: four-seater CJ 340 and six-seater CJ 540. Both were equipped with Peugeot-sourced 64 hp (48 kW; 65 PS) engines.[32]

  • A 1963 Türk Willys Overland CJ-3B on display at the Rahmi M. Koç Museum of Transportation, Istanbul

  • Mahindra's CL 550 MDI model

Mitsubishi Jeep[edit]

Motor vehicle

Mitsubishi Jeep J-series
Mitsubishi 1955 Jeep.JPG
ManufacturerMitsubishi Motors
Production1953-1998
AssemblyPajero Manufacturing Co., Ltd, Sakahogi, Gifu, Japan
Body style
LayoutFront engine, four-wheel drive
Engine
Wheelbase
  • 2,030 mm (80 in)
  • 2,255 mm (88.8 in)
  • 2,640 mm (104 in)
Length3,390–4,330 mm (133–170 in)
SuccessorMitsubishi Pajero

The Jeep was introduced to the Japanese market as the Jeep J3 in July 1953 after Willys agreed to allow Mitsubishi to market the car, competing with the Nissan Patrol and the Toyota Land Cruiser.[34] The name wasn't in reference to "CJ3", but rather denoted the fact that 53 "J1"s (CJ-3A with 6-volt electrics) had been built for the Japanese regional forest office and around 500 "J2"s (CJ-3A with 12-volt electrics) were built for the National Safety Forces.[22] Mitsubishi continued knock-down production of vehicles derived from the CJ-3B design until August 1998, when tighter emissions and safety standards finally made the Jeep obsolete. In total, about 200,000 units were built in this 45-year period.[35] Short, medium, and long wheelbases were available, as well as a variety of bodystyles, and gasoline and diesel engines.[36] In Japan, it was sold at a specific retail chain called Galant Shop. The Japanese GSDF refers to them as Type 73 Light Truck.

Mitsubishi Jeep Delivery Wagon J37

The original J3 was a basic, doorless, and roofless version, with steering on the left, rather than the right, despite Japan having left-side traffic. The first right-hand drive versions did not appear until nearly eight years later (J3R/J11R). The original J3 and its derivatives were equipped with the 2.2 L (2,199 cc) F-head "Hurricane" (called JH4 by Mitsubishi, for Japanese Hurricane 4-cylinder) inline four-cylinder, originally producing 70 PS (51 kW; 69 hp) at 4,000 rpm.[37] In 1955 a slightly longer wheelbase J10 which could seat six was added, and in 1956 the J11 appeared, a two-door "delivery wagon" with a full metal body. This was considerably longer, at 433 cm (170 in) versus 339 cm (133 in) for the J3.

Local production of the JH4 engine commenced in 1955. A locally developed diesel version (KE31) was introduced for the JC3 in 1958, originally with 56 PS (41 kW) at 3,500 rpm but with 61 PS (45 kW; 60 hp) at 3,600 rpm a few years later.[37] Later versions used 4DR5 and 4DR6 (J23 turbo) 2.7 liter overhead-valve diesel engines. The final military version J24A produced 135PS from an improved 4DR5 engine with front-mounted air-to-air intercooler.

By 1962, the output of the gasoline JH4 engine had crept up to 76 PS (56 kW; 75 hp). By the time of the introduction of the longer J20 in 1960, a six-seater like the J10, but with a differently configurated (more permanent) front windshield, as well as available metal doors, Mitsubishi had also added small diagonal skirts to the leading edge of the Jeep's front fenders. This remained the last change to the sheetmetal up front until the end of Mitsubishi Jeep production in 1998.

Later models include 2-L, short-wheelbase, soft-top J58 (J54 with a diesel engine), and the J38 gasoline wagon on the longest wheelbase.[38] The last iteration of the Japanese Jeeps was the J53 with diesel turbo engine.

CJ-5[edit]

Motor vehicle

Willys CJ-5/Jeep CJ-5
Jeep CJ-5 V6 red open body.jpg
Also calledFord Jeep (Brazil)[39]
Jeep Shahbaz (Iran, Pars Khodro)[40]
Shinjin Jeep (South Korea)[41]
Production1954-1983
603,303 produced [42]
Model years1955-1983
Related
Engine
  • 134 cu in (2.2 L) Willys Hurricane I4
  • 192 cu in (3.1 L) Perkins 4.192 I4 diesel
  • 225 cu in (3.7 L) Dauntless V6
  • 151 cu in (2.5 L) Iron Duke I4
  • 232 cu in (3.8 L) AMC I6
  • 258 cu in (4.2 L) AMC I6
  • 304 cu in (5.0 L) AMC V8
Transmission
  • three-speed manual
  • four-speed manual
Wheelbase
Length138.2 in (3,510 mm)
Width68.5 in (1,740 mm)
Height67.7 in (1,720 mm)
Curb weight2,665 lb (1,209 kg)[44]

The Willys CJ-5 (after 1964 Jeep CJ-5) was influenced by new corporate owner, Kaiser, and the Korean WarM38A1 Jeep. It was intended to replace the CJ-3B, but that model continued in production. The CJ-5 repeated this pattern, continuing in production for three decades while three newer models appeared. "The CJ-5 has the distinct honor of being a vehicle that was hard to kill off... equaling the longest production run of note."[45]

1965 Jeep CJ5-A Tuxedo Park Mark IV half cab

From 1961 to 1965, optional for the CJ-5 and CJ-6 was the British-made Perkins 192 cu in (3.15 L) Diesel I4 with 62 hp (46 kW) at 3,000 rpm and 143 lb/ft (213 kg/m) at 1350 rpm.[46]

In 1965, Kaiser bought license to produce the Buick 225 cu in (3.7 L) V6 Dauntless engine, to offer the new 155 hp (116 kW) option on the CJ-5 and CJ-6, countering complaints that the 75 hp four-cylinder Willys Hurricane engine was underpowered. Power steering was an $81 option.[12] The V6 engine proved so popular, by 1968, some 75% of CJ-5s were sold with it.[47]

CJ-5 with the "Jeep-A-Trench" accessory

Kaiser Jeep was sold to American Motors Corporation (AMC) in 1970, and the Buick engine was retired after the 1971 model year. (GM's Buick division repurchased the engine tooling in the early 1970s which served as the powerplant in several GM vehicles.) The "Trac-Lok" limited-slip differential replaced the "Powr-Lok" in 1971, and PTOs were no longer available after that year.[48] AMC began marketing the Jeep less as a universal utility vehicle, and more as a sporty one, notably increasing its performance and features.

1972 Revamp
The 1972 model year brought significant changes to the CJ-5. American Motors began fitting their own engines, which also required changes to both body and chassis. The base Willys 4-cylinder was replaced by AMC's Torque Command straight-6 engines, giving the entry-level CJ-5 the power of the previously optional Buick V6. Standard became the 232 cu in (3.8 L), and optional the 258 cu in (4.2 L), which was standard in California. Both engines used a one-barrel Carter YF carburetor. Also in 1972, AMC's 304 cu in (5.0 L) V8 engine became available, which upgraded the power-to-weight ratio to a level comparable to a V8 muscle-car. Other drive-train changes included a new front axle - a full-floating, open-knuckle Dana 30, which was both 25 lbs lighter and reduced the turning circle by 6 ft.

To accommodate the new engines, the wheelbase was stretched by 3 in (76 mm), and the fenders and hood were stretched by 5 in (127 mm), pushing the firewall two inches closer to the rear.[47][49] A new box-frame was fitted, featuring six cross-members for more rigidity.[50] Also, a larger fuel tank was mounted, moved from under the driver's seat to under the rear, between the frame rails.[51]

A dealer-installed radio became available in 1973, air conditioning became available via dealership in 1975. Electronic, breakerless distributors replaced breaker-point Delco distributors for the full engine line-up, and a catalytic converter was added to models equipped with the 304 V8.[52]

In 1975, for the 1976 model year, the tub and frame were modified from earlier versions. The frame went from a partially open channel/boxed frame with riveted crossmembers, to majoritively boxed with welded crossmembers, and from parallel rails to widening fore to aft to benefit stability.[53] and the body tub became more rounded. The windshield frame and windshield angle were also changed, meaning that tops from 1955 to 1975 will not fit a 1976-1983 CJ-5 and vice versa. The rear axle was also changed in 1976 from a Dana 44 to an AMC-manufactured model 20 that had a larger-diameter ring gear, but used a two-piece axleshaft/hub assembly instead of the one-piece design used in the Dana.

For 1977, the frame was modified again to a completely boxed unit. Power disc brakes and the "Golden Eagle" package (which included a tachometer and clock) were new options,[12] as well as air conditioning.[52]

In 1979, the standard engine became the 258 cu in (4.2 L) I6 that now featured a Carter BBD two-barrel carburetor.

From 1980 to 1983, the CJ-5 came standard with a "Hurricane"-branded version of the GMIron Duke I4 with an SR4 close-ratio, four-speed manual transmission. The 258 cu in (4.2 L) AMC straight-6 engine remained available as an option, but the transmission was changed from the Tremec T-150 three-speed to a Tremec T-176 close-ratio four-speed. The Dana 30 front axle was retained, but the locking hubs were changed to a five-bolt retaining pattern versus the older six-bolt.

The demise of the AMC CJ5 model has been attributed to a December 1980 60 Minutes segment where the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) staged a demonstration to illustrate that the CJ5 was apt to roll over "in routine road circumstances at relatively low speeds." Years later, it was revealed the testers only managed to achieve eight rollovers out of 435 runs through a corner. The IIHS requested the testers implement "vehicle loading" (hanging weights in the vehicle's corners inside the body, where they were not apparent to the camera) to generate worst-case conditions for stability.[54]

Special CJ-5 versions[edit]

  • 1961 Tuxedo Park
  • 1962 Tuxedo Park Mark II
  • 1963 Tuxedo Park Mark III
  • 1965 Tuxedo Park Mark IV
The early Tuxedo Park models were trim lines designed to make the CJ "more comfortable and appealing to the general public."[55] However, the Tuxedo Park Mark IV was claimed as a separate model from the other CJ series (marked in 1965 as the "Universal"), with more differences than past models. The Tuxedo Park Mark IV was an attempt to crack the mass market; it was, according to Jeep, “a new idea in sports cars ... the sportiest, most FUNctional car on the automotive scene."[56] It added to the standard CJ chrome-plated bumpers, hood latches, gas cap, mirror, and tail lamp trim. Two wheelbases, 81 in (2,100 mm) and 101 in (2,600 mm), were available, with a variety of convertible top and seat colors, and front bucket seats upholstered in "pleated British calf-grain vinyl". Sales of this model, introduced in 1965, were low.[56]
From 1969 Kaiser-Jeep offered a camper for the CJ-5 as a factory option, but also available separately, as it would fit any CJ-5 made since 1955. The camper mounted in the "bed" of the CJ-5, extended well beyond the back of the car, and had another axle of its own, that carried most of the weight. It also extended above the front seats of a CJ-5, which is where the main sleeper was located.[57][58][59][60][61][62] When AMC bought Kaiser-Jeep in 1970, they ended the Jeep camper option. With only 336 produced, the Jeep Camper is one of the rarest commercial RV models ever.[58]
The 1969 Universal offered a "462" performance package. It was a limited-production model that featured the V6 engine, front bucket seats and a rear bench, roll bar, heavy-duty frame and springs, a locking differential, oil-pan skid plate, rear swing-out tire carrier, full wheel covers, ammeter, and oil pressure gauges; padded visors were optional.[63]
The 1970 "Renegade I" models continued the features of the "462" package, along with special hood trim stripes and limited colors. Renegade I production for 1970 is estimated between 250 and 500 units equipped with all of the previous performance upgrades along with a simple black stripe on the sides of the hood, new 8-inch wide white road wheels with G70x15 tires, and offered in only two bright colors: Wild Plum and Mint Green.[64] Note that there may have been other colors produced including a pale yellow produced in October of 1969.
The 1971 "Renegade II" continued the previous year's features with bright alloy road wheels (replacing the painted steel units), the addition of a black center hood stripe, and new color selections: about 200 were painted Baja Yellow, 200 Mint Green, 50 Riverside Orange, and 150 finished in Big Bad Orange, the same paint as available on the "Big Bad" AMC AMX and Javelin.[65] AMC design studios proposed a striping scheme for a Renegade III model for the 1972 model year, but because of their popularity, the Renegade became a regular production appearance package option.[66]
The 1972 "Renegade" was available from 1972 to 1983 with AMC's 304 cu in (5.0 L) V8 engine, alloy wheels, and a Trac-Lok limited-slip differential.
1979 Jeep CJ Silver Anniversary edition, lengthened nose as compared to pre-1972 models
Only produced in 1973, the Super Jeep was an appearance package created because of a shortage of aluminum wheels needed for the CJ-5 Renegade versions. Only a few hundred were built.[67]
From 1977 to 1983, the Golden Eagle package came with a soft-top or hard-top option, power disc brakes, power steering, tachometer, 304 CID V8, air conditioning, side steps, and Golden Eagle decals.[50]
The 1979 Silver Anniversary edition was a limited-edition version (1000 units) of the Renegade model marketed to celebrate 25 years of the CJ-5. Features included a special "Quick Silver" metallic paint, black to silver accent body striping and special Renegade decals on the hood sides, black soft top, special spare tire cover, black vinyl bucket seats, and a dashboard plaque noting the CJ's production from 1954 to 1979.[68][69]
  • 1980 Golden Hawk — a 1980-only sticker package for CJ-5, CJ-7 and Cherokee.
  • 1980-1983 Laredo

Australia[edit]

In Australia, a unique variant of the CJ5/CJ6 was produced in limited numbers. In 1965, when the CJ was given the all-new Buick V6, Jeep saw the need for something similar in Australia. So, they began to fit Falcon 6-cylinder engines to them at their Rocklea factory in Queensland. The Jeep was fitted with an engine, pedal box, and clutch/brake system corresponding to the equivalent Falcon at the time; a 1965 CJ5 would be fitted with 1965 Falcon engine/clutch components. Combat 6 jeeps were also fitted with Australian Borg Warner differentials, and Borg Warner-brand gearboxes. Very little documentation about these Jeeps remains, and often the only way to conclusively identify them is by owner history.[70]

Brazil[edit]

While most foreign assemblers focused on the CJ-3B, Brazil received the CJ-5, instead. After having closed their market to imported cars in 1954, assembly of the "Willys Jeep Universal" (as it was known in Brazil) from CKD kits began in 1957.[39] By 1958, production relied on locally sourced components, with the vehicles equipped with a 90 hp (67 kW) 2.6 liter I6 engine (also used by Willys do Brasil for passenger cars). The Universals came with a three-speed manual transmission. The Brazilian-built vehicles are easily recognized by their squared-off rear wheel openings. In 1961, a long-wheelbase version, similar to the CJ-6, was added to the line. Called the "Willys Jeep 101", it shared the chassis of the local Rural, a redesigned Willys Jeep Station Wagon. Like the Brazilian-made CJ5s, the 101 has square rear-wheel openings.[39] This version was introduced in 1961, but was not retained after Ford's takeover in the fall of 1967. On 9 October 1967, Ford do Brasil bought the Brazilian Willys subsidiary and took over the production of the CJ-5, the Willys Jeep Station Wagon-based "Rural", and its pick-up truck version. Ford kept the line with no modifications except for some Ford badges on the sides and on the tailgate.[39] In 1976, Ford equipped the CJ-5 and the Rural with the locally built version of the 2.3-L OHC four-cylinder engine used in the Ford Pinto (also used in the Brazilian Maverick) and a four-speed manual transmission. This engine produced 91 PS (67 kW; 90 hp) (SAE) at 5000 rpm.[71] In 1980, the engine was modified to run on ethanol (E100); this option lasted until 1983, when Ford ended the production of the CJ-5 in Brazil.[39]

  • 1961 Willys Jeep 101 4 portas (aka "Bernardao")

  • 1963 Brazilian-built CJ-5

CJ-6[edit]

Motor vehicle

Willys CJ-6/Jeep CJ-6
Jeep CJ6.jpg
Production1955-1981
RelatedWillys M170
Engine
  • 134 cu in (2.2 L) Willys Hurricane I4
  • 225 cu in (3.7 L) DauntlessV6
  • 151 cu in (2.5 L) GM Iron Duke I4
  • 232 cu in (3.8 L) AMC I6
  • 258 cu in (4.2 L) AMC I6
  • 304 cu in (5.0 L) AMC V8
  • 192 cu in (3.1 L) Perkins 4.192 I4 diesel
Wheelbase
  • 101 in (2,565 mm) (1955-1971)
  • 103.5 in (2,629 mm) (1972-1981)

Introduced in 1953 as the M170 military version, the civilian CJ-6 made its debut in 1955 as a 1956 model. It was stretched version of the CJ-5 with a 20 in (508 mm) longer-wheelbase (101 in, 1955-1971 / 103.5 in, 1972–1981).[72] The extended chassis allowed a variety of configurations, including adding a second row of seats. The M170 military version shared many of the features of the M38A1 (Military CJ-5), but had the passenger-door opening extended back to the rear wheel well. As in the CJ-5, the V6 and V8 engine choices appeared in 1965 and 1972.

The U.S. Forest Service put of CJ-6 Jeeps into use. American sales ended after 1975, with the introduction of the CJ-7. A total of 50,172 were produced when the series went out of production in 1981.[42]

Never very popular in the United States, most CJ-6 models were sold to Sweden and South America. It was also assembled in South Africa, by Volkswagen's local subsidiary,[73] and in Israel by Kaiser in Haifa and later by Israel automobile industries in Nazareth.[74]

M170

M170, right side showing larger opening that extends from the cowl back to the rear wheel.

1975 Jeep CJ-6 fire engine.

CJ-6, right side showing smaller opening similar to other CJ models and shorter than on the M170.

CJ-5A and CJ-6A[edit]

Motor vehicle

CJ-5A & CJ-6A
Production1964-1968

From 1964 to 1968, Kaiser elevated the Tuxedo Park from just a trim package to a separate model for the CJ-5A and CJ-6A. A Tuxedo Park Mark IV is signified by a different prefix from a normal CJ-5 with a VIN prefix of 8322 and a CJ6a is 8422, while a normal CJ-5 VIN prefix is 8305 from 1964 to 1971.

CJ-7[edit]

"CJ-7" redirects here. For the 2008 film, see CJ7.

Motor vehicle

The Jeep CJ-7 featured a wheelbase 10 inches longer than that of the CJ-5, with its curved side entry cutouts partially squared up to accommodate hinged doors. The other main difference between CJ-5 and CJ-7 was to the chassis, which consisted of two parallel longitudinal main c-section rails. To help improve vehicle handling and stability, the rear section of the chassis stepped out to allow the springs and shock absorbers to be mounted closer to the outside of the body. It was introduced for the 1976 model year, with 379,299 built during 11 years of production.[42]

Transmission options included the standard part-time two-speed transfer case, automatic, and an optional new automatic all-wheel drive system called Quadra-Trac. Other features included an optional molded hardtop, and steel doors. The CJ-7 was also available in Renegade and Laredo models. Distinguished by their different body decals, the Laredo model featured highback leather bucket seats, a tilting steering wheel, and a chrome package that included the bumpers, front grill cover, and side mirrors. An optional Trak-Lok rear differential was available, too.

The reports of the CJ-7 were different in each type of engine: the 145 cu in (2.4 L) diesel was mated to the 4.10 ratio axle (in both Renegade and Laredo), while the 258 cubic-inch straight six and 150 cubic-inch four-cylinder used 3.73 and AMC V8 304-powered models (produced 1976–1981, which became part of the Golden Eagle version) used the 3.55 ratio axles.

A diesel-powered version was made in the Ohio factory for export only. The engines were provided by General Motors, the owners of Isuzu Motor Cars. Production of this diesel version was between 1980 and 1982. This model had the Isuzu C240 engine, T176 transmission, and Dana 300 transfer case, although reports of some being produced with the Dana 20 exist. Typically, they had 4.1-ratio, narrow-track axles.

From 1976 to 1980, the CJ-7 came equipped with a Dana 20 transfer case, Dana 30 front axle (27- or 31-spline), and a 29-spline AMC 20 rear axle, while later years, Laredo packages added tachometer, chrome bumpers, tow hooks, and interior upgrades including leather seats and clock. In 1980, the Laredo was first fitted with an AMC 20 rear axle until mid-1986, when it was equipped with a Dana 44, and all 1980 and newer CJ-7s came with the Dana 300 transfer case.

The Canadian Army took delivery of 195 militarized versions of the CJ-7 in 1985. These were put into service as a stop-gap measure between the retirement of the M38A1 and the introduction of the Bombardier Iltis. They were codified by the Canadian Forces with the Equipment Configuration Code number 121526.

The CJ-7 continues to be used in the sport of mud racing, with either the stock body or a fiberglass replica. CJ-7 has been successfully and widely used as a favorite for rock crawling, through simple and complex modification. These last Jeeps produced were also highlighted with a factory dash plaque that read, "Last of a Great Breed - This collectors-edition CJ ends an era that began with the legendary Jeep of World War II".

During its 11 years, the CJ-7 had various common trim packages:

  • 1976-1986 Renegade (2.4D L6-2.5-4.2-5.0 AMC 304 V8)
  • 1976-1980 Golden Eagle (5.0 AMC 304 V8)
  • 1980 Golden Hawk (5.0 AMC 304 V8)
  • 1980-1986 Laredo (2.4D-4.2 I6)
1982 Jamboree Edition #0152 — Topaz Gold Metallic
1982 Jamboree Edition #0693 — Olympic White

Jeep also produced two special edition CJ-7 packages:

  • 1982-1983 Limited (2,500 units were built as a limited-production luxury model; 4.2-L I6 with T5 or automatic transmissions)
  • 1982 Jamboree Commemorative Edition (630 numbered units built for the 30th anniversary of the Rubicon Trail;[76] 4.2L).  with only 630 units produced (560 Topaz Gold Metallic and 70 Olympic White), the CJ-7 Jamboree is the rarest CJ-7 ever built and one of the rarest Jeeps of all time. The Jamboree is in the same production rarity class as the 1971 CJ-5 Renegade-II. It is the most heavily optioned CJ ever built; it was the Rubicon of its day. All units were uniquely numbered via a dash plaque; it is the only AMC Jeep to have been numbered.[76]

Engines

  • 150 cu in (2.5 L) AMC I4
  • 151 cu in (2.5 L) GM Iron Duke I4
  • 232 cu in (3.8 L) AMC I6
  • 258 cu in (4.2 L) AMC I6 99.4 PS (73 kW; 98 hp), 261 N⋅m (193 lb⋅ft)
  • 304 cu in (5.0 L) AMC V8 127 PS (93 kW; 125 hp), 296 N⋅m (218 lb⋅ft)[75]
  • 145 cu in (2.4 L) Isuzu Diesel C240

Transmissions

  • Warner T-18 (four-speed with a Dana 20 1976-1979) (aftermarket adapters exist for a dana 300, but it was not a factory option) (also known as a three-speed with granny gear)
  • Borg-Warner T-4 (four-speed with a Dana 300)
  • Borg-Warner T-5 (five-speed with a Dana 300)
  • Tremec T-150 (three-speed manual transmission with a Dana 20 1976-1979)
  • Tremec T-176 (four-speed manual with a Dana 300)
  • Borg-Warner SR-4 (four-speed with a Dana 300)
  • GM TH-400 (three-speed automatic with BW QuadraTrac #1339)
  • TF-999 (three-speed automatic transmission - 4.2-L with a Dana 300)
  • TF-904 (three-speed automatic transmission - 2.5-L with a Dana 300)

Transfer cases

Axles

  • Dana 30 Front narrow track (1976–1981)
  • Dana 30 Front wide track (1982–1986)
  • 2-Piece AMC 20 Narrow track rear (1976–1981)
  • 2-Piece AMC 20 Narrow track offset differential rear (1976–1979) only for QuadraTrac #1339-equipped vehicles
  • 2-Piece AMC 20 Wide track rear (1982–1986)
  • Dana 44 Wide track rear (mid-year 1986)

Scrambler (CJ-8)[edit]

The Jeep Scrambler CJ-8 was a long-wheelbase version of the CJ-7, introduced in 1981 and manufactured through 1986. It featured a 103.5 in (2,629 mm) wheelbase[72] and a removable half cab, creating a small pick-up style box instead of using a separate pickup bed. CJ-8s used the traditional transfer case with manual front locking hubs to engage the four-wheel drive. Most had either a four- or five-speed manual transmission, but a three-speed automatic transmission was an option.

The term "Scrambler" comes from an appearance package with which many CJ-8s were equipped, which included tape graphics and special wheels. Former PresidentRonald Reagan owned a Scrambler "CJ-8" and used it on his California ranch.[77]

Alaska Postal Service[edit]

A full-length steel hardtop CJ-8 was made for the Alaskan Postal Service, using right-hand drive and automatic transmissions. Instead of the rear tailgate, the steel hardtop used a hinged barn-door opening to the back. Only 230 were produced and sold in the U.S. It was also widely sold in Venezuela and Australia as the CJ8 Overlander, with small differences, including full-length rear windows on the Overlander.[78] Steel hardtops used on these postal Scramblers and Overlanders were known as "World Cab" tops.[79]

Production[edit]

Year Production[80]
1981 8,355
1982 7,759
1983 5,405
1984 4,130
1985 2,015
1986 128

There is some debate as to whether 1986 models were leftover units from the previous model year.

CJ-10[edit]

Motor vehicle

Jeep CJ-10
Jeep CJ10.JPG
Also calledJeep One-Tonner[81]
Jeep J10[81]
Production1981-1985
Assembly
Body style2-door pickup truck
Engine
Transmission
Wheelbase119.8 in (3,040 mm)[82][83]
Length191 in (4,850 mm) cab & chassis [82]
196 in (4,980 mm)[83] with the utility box and rear bumper[82]
Width68 in (1,730 mm)[82][83]
Height72 in (1,830 mm)[82][83]
Curb weight4,300 lb (2,000 kg)[81]

The Jeep CJ-10 was a CJ-bodied pickup truck based on a heavily modified Jeep J10 pickup truck.[81] Produced from 1981 to 1985, it was sold and designed for export markets, Australia in particular.[81] They featured rectangular headlights mounted in the fenders and a ten-slot grille, where all other CJ Jeeps had a seven-slot grille. The CJ-10 could have either a hard or soft top. The truck could be equipped to handle either a 5,900 lb (2,700 kg) or 6,700 lb (3,000 kg) GVW. Three engines were offered; a 198 cu in (3.2 L) six-cylinder Nissan-built diesel engine, a 151 cu in (2.5 L) four-cylinder AMC-built engine, or a 258 cu in (4.2 L) six-cylinder AMC-built engine. The driveline was largely from the larger J series pickups, consisting of either a four-speed Tremec T177 manual transmission or a three-speed TorqueFlite A727 automatic transmission, a New Process 208 transfer case, a semi-floating Dana 44 front differential, and either a semi-floating Dana 44 or Dana 60 rear differential, depending on GVW rating.[81] Importation of the CJ-10 into Australia ended in 1985 with the drop of the Australian dollar's value, causing the vehicle to be significantly more costly than its competitors.[81]

CJ-10A[edit]

Motor vehicle

The Jeep CJ-10A was a CJ-10-based flightline aircraft tug. Produced in Mexico from 1984 to 1986, it was used by the United States Air Force as an aircraft-tug. It was a 4x2 bobtail design.[81] About 2,300 were produced.

References[edit]

  1. ^ ab"A.M.C. to End Jeep CJ Models". The New York Times. 28 November 1985. Archived from the original on 14 March 2018. Retrieved 13 February 2018.
  2. ^Allen, Jim (2004). Jeep Collector's Library. MBI Publishing. pp. 49–51. ISBN . Archived from the original on 8 July 2014. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
  3. ^Ackerson, Robert (2005). Jeep CJ 1945-1986. Veloce Publishing. ISBN .
  4. ^Strohl, Daniel (18 February 2011). "Class of '86 – Jeep CJ-7 and CJ-8". Hemmings Daily. Archived from the original on 13 January 2018. Retrieved 13 February 2018.
  5. ^Flory, Jr., J. "Kelly" (2004). American Cars, 1960-1972: Every Model, Year by Year. McFarland. pp. 412, 700. ISBN .
  6. ^Statham, Steve. Jeep Color History. MotorBooks International. p. 57. ISBN . Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  7. ^ abcdefAllen, Jim (27 July 2015). "The Oldest Restored Civilian Jeep". FourWheeler.com. Extreme Ventures. Archived from the original on 22 February 2018. Retrieved 13 February 2018.
  8. ^ ab"The CJ2A Story". Thecj2apage.com. Archived from the original on 5 October 2017. Retrieved 13 February 2018.
  9. ^ abGunnell, John A. (1993). Standard Catalog of American Light-Duty Trucks. Krause Publications. ISBN .
  10. ^Branch, Jon (2019-09-12). "A Brief History of the Jeep CJ Series - Everything You Need To Know". Silodrome. Retrieved 2020-10-21.
  11. ^Hemmings Find of the Day – 1945 Willys CJ-2
  12. ^ abcdefghijGunnell, John A. (1993). Standard Catalog of American Light Duty Trucks, 1896-1986. Krause Publications. ISBN .
  13. ^"1949 Jeep Universal Operation Data". Oldcarbrochures.com. Archived from the original on 2012-03-06. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
  14. ^About Willys Jeep CJ-2A - Jeep Specs and History | KaiserWillys.com
  15. ^ abcJohnny. "The CJ2A Page - Specifications". www.thecj2apage.com. Archived from the original on 2017-12-26. Retrieved 2017-12-25.
  16. ^ abc"The CJ2A Page -- History of the CJ2A". www.thecj2apage.com. Archived from the original on 2019-05-24. Retrieved 2018-05-06.
  17. ^"About Willys Vehicles - CJ-3A history specs". KaiserWillys.com. Retrieved 2019-10-30.
  18. ^ abWesterman, Bob. "The CJ3A Information Page". www.cj3a.info. Archived from the original on 2017-12-25. Retrieved 2017-12-25.
  19. ^Cary, Reed (4 March 2001). "The CJ-3A Universal Jeep". Archived from the original on 26 June 2012. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
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  21. ^Westerman, Bob. "CJ-3A Farm Jeep and Jeep Tractor". www.cj3a.info. Archived from the original on 2017-12-26. Retrieved 2017-12-25.
  22. ^ abOzeki, Kazuo (2007). [Japanese Trucks and Buses 1918-1972] (in Japanese). Tokyo: Miki Press. p. 131. ISBN .
  23. ^"The Lost CJ-4 on CJ3B.info". cj3b.info. Archived from the original on 2017-10-11. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
  24. ^"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-12-29. Retrieved 2017-12-28.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  25. ^"The CJ-4M Jeep Prototype on CJ3B.info". cj3b.info. Archived from the original on 2017-10-11. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
  26. ^"CJ-4MA Jeep Prototype on CJ3B.info". cj3b.info. Archived from the original on 2017-10-11. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
  27. ^"Jeep: 1962 Jeep CJ-3B Brochure". Oldcarbrochures.com. Archived from the original on 2012-03-06. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
  28. ^"1962 Jeep CJ-3B brochure". Oldcarbrochures.com. Archived from the original on 2012-03-06. Retrieved 2012-05-31.
  29. ^ abRedmond, Derek (2004-11-11). "Jeeps for Export on The CJ3B Page". Film.queensu.ca. Archived from the original on 2010-12-05. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
  30. ^"About Willys Vehicles - CJ-3B Universal". www.kaiserwillys.com. Archived from the original on 2017-12-28. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
  31. ^1963 Türk Willys Overland: Universal Jeep CJ-3B (Museum placard), Hasköy, Istanbul, Turkey: Rahmi M. Koç Museum,
  32. ^"Mahindra CJ history". betterparts.org. Archived from the original on 18 November 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
  33. ^Willys-VIASA Universal Jeep advert with specifications
  34. ^Edsall, Larry. "Field Guide: Through the generations with Toyota's Land Cruiser". The Classic Cars.com Journal. Archived from the original on 7 November 2018. Retrieved 7 November 2018.
  35. ^"Facts & Figures 2008"(PDF). Tokyo, Japan: Mitsubishi Motors. October 2008. p. 40. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2009-03-20.
  36. ^Redmond, Derek (2010-05-01). "Jeeps in Japan". Film.queensu.ca. Archived from the original on 2011-06-04. Retrieved 2011-05-05.
  37. ^ abOzeki, p. 140
  38. ^自動車ガイドブック [Japanese Motor Vehicles Guide Book] (in Japanese). 25. Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association. 1978-10-10. pp. 206–207. 0053-780025-3400.
  39. ^ abcdeRedmond, Derek. ""Jipes" in Brasil". The CJ3B Page. Archived from the original on 2010-07-16. Retrieved 2012-02-19.
  40. ^"Pars Khodro in history"(PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on 12 March 2012. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
  41. ^국내 최장수 자동차 브랜드 ‘코란도’의 7전8기Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine, Dong-a Ilbo, 06-14-2014
  42. ^ abcMorr, Tom; Brubaker, Ken (2007). Jeep Off-Road. Wisconsin: MotorBooks International. p. 88. ISBN . Archived from the original on 2017-12-24. Retrieved 2017-12-23.
  43. ^DeLong, Brad (1996). 4-wheel Freedom. Paladin Press. ISBN .
  44. ^"1979 Jeep CJ-5 car technical specifications from Carfolio.com - 0 door 4.2-L (4235 cc) I6 99.4 PS, 2X3 speed manual". Carfolio.com. Archived from the original on 2012-03-14. Retrieved 2010-12-03.
  45. ^Tellem, Tori (June 2007). "History of the CJ-5 - Jeep Autopsy: CJ-5 One Of The "Unstoppables"". JP Magazine. Archived from the original on 21 June 2013. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
  46. ^"Engine Specs - Jeep Engines". Baeta.org. Archived from the original on 2011-11-16. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
  47. ^ abCranswick, Marc (2011). The Cars of American Motors: An Illustrated History. McFarland. p. 241. ISBN . Archived from the original on 2017-12-30. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
  48. ^"Transfer Cases - Jeep-CJ Forums". www.jeep-cj.com. Archived from the original on 2017-12-30. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
  49. ^"About Willys Vehicles - CJ-5, 6". www.kaiserwillys.com. Archived from the original on 2017-12-30. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
  50. ^ abTrotta, Mark. "CJ Jeep History". www.classic-car-history.com. Archived from the original on 2017-12-30. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
  51. ^"Identifying a Jeep, An In-depth Spotters Guide to the 72-75 AMC Jeep CJ-5 - jeepfan.com". www.jeepfan.com. Archived from the original on 2017-12-30. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
  52. ^ abAllen, Jim (2004). Jeep Collector's Library. MBI Publishing. pp. 91–92. ISBN . Archived from the original on 8 July 2014. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
  53. ^"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-12-30. Retrieved 2017-12-30.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  54. ^Olson, Walter. ""It Didn't Start With Dateline NBC" (National Review 6/21/93)". walterolson.com. Archived from the original on 12 May 2017. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
  55. ^Allen, Jim (2004). Jeep Collector's Library. Motorbooks. p. 82. ISBN . Archived from the original on 3 June 2016. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
  56. ^ ab"Jeep for 1965: CJ, Wagoneer, Gladiator, Universal, Fleetvan, and DJ". allpar.com. Archived from the original on 5 December 2015. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
  57. ^"Rare Jeep Camper - 1969 CJ5 Jeep Camper History, Photos and Information". www.cj5camper.com. Archived from the original on 2013-12-28. Retrieved 2013-12-27.
  58. ^ ab"The 1969 CJ5 Jeep Camper Could Be The Rarest RV Ever". www.doityourselfrv.com. Archived from the original on 2017-12-29. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
  59. ^"New 'Jeep' camper (brochure)". p. 5. Archived from the original on 27 February 2012. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
  60. ^"New 'Jeep' camper (brochure)". p. 6. Archived from the original on 27 February 2012. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
  61. ^"New 'Jeep' camper (brochure)". p. 7. Archived from the original on 27 February 2012. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
  62. ^"New 'Jeep' camper (brochure)". p. 8. Archived from the original on 27 February 2012. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
  63. ^Statham, Steve (1999). Jeep Color History. Motorbooks. p. 95. ISBN . Archived from the original on 2 May 2016. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
  64. ^Foster, Patrick R. (2014). Jeep: The History of America's Greatest Vehicle. Motorbooks. p. 95. ISBN 
Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jeep_CJ
How to edit cj's cutscene model
Jeep CJ
ManufacturerJeep
Production 1944-1986
AssemblyToledo, Ohio, United States
SuccessorJeep Wrangler
Jeep Comanche (For pickup version)
Class Compact sport utility vehicle
2-door pickup truck
LayoutFront engine, rear-wheel drive / four-wheel drive

The Willys CJ (later Jeep CJ) (or Civilian Jeep) is a public version of the famous Willys Military Jeep from World War II.

The first CJ prototype (the Willys CJ-2) was introduced in 1944 by Willys, and the same basic vehicle stayed in production through seven variants and three corporate parents until 1986.

A variant of the CJ is still in production today under license. The last CJs, the CJ-7 and CJ-8, were replaced in 1987 by the Jeep Wrangler.

Also available were two-wheel-drive variants, known as DJs.[1]

CJ-1[]

Production 1944

By 1944, the Allies were confident the war would be won. This allowed Willys to consider designing a Jeep for the post-war civilian market. Documentation is hard to come by, but it seems that a Willys-Overland CJ-1 (for "Civilian Jeep-1") was running by May of that year. The CJ-1 was apparently an MB that had been modified by adding a tailgate, drawbar, and a civilian-style canvas top. None of the CJ-1s built have survived, and it is not known (at this writing) how many were built.[2]

CJ-2[]

Production 1944-1945
CJ2 small.jpg

Although it bore the CJ name, the Willys-Overland CJ-2 was not really available at retail. The CJ-2s, also known as "AgriJeeps," were the second generation prototype for the first production civilian Jeep, and were used solely for testing purposes. It was directly based on the military Willys MB, using the same Willys Go Devil engine, but stripped of all military features, particularly the blackout lighting. They had tailgates, Power Take-offs ("PTO"s), engine governors, column-shift T90 transmissions, 5.38 gears, 2.43:1 low-range transfer cases, and driver's-side tool indentations. The earlier models had brass plaques on the bonnet and windscreen that read "JEEP". Later models were stamped "JEEP" a la the familiar "WILLYS" stamping that appeared on the CJ-2A and later models. Some CJ-2s had "AgriJeep" plaques affixed to the dash. The spare tire was mounted forward of the passenger-side rear wheel on the earlier models and aft of the rear wheel on later ones. It seems that CJ-2s were distributed to "agricultural stations" for evaluation purposes. Of the 45 CJ-2s built, serial numbers CJ2-06, CJ2-09, CJ2-11, CJ2-12, CJ2-14, CJ2-26, CJ2-32, CJ2-37 and CJ2-39 have survived. Only CJ2-09 has been restored.[3]

CJ-2A[]

Desert Queen Ranch - Willy's Jeep.jpg
Production 1945-1949

Lessons learned with the CJ-2 led to the development of the first full-production CJ, the 1945-1949 Willys-Overland CJ-2A. The CJ-2A looked very much like a civilianized MB with a tailgate and side mounted spare tire. One major difference between the MB and the CJ-2A can be found by looking at the grilles of the two vehicles. The MB had recessed headlights and nine-slot grilles while the CJ2A had larger headlights flush-mounted in a seven-slot grille. In place of the MB's T-84 transmission, the CJ-2A was equipped with the beefier T-90 three speed transmission. However, the CJ-2A was still powered with the reliable L-134 Go-Devil engine. Many of the early CJ-2As were produced using surplus military Jeep parts such as engine blocks and, in a few cases, modified frames.

Since the CJ-2A was primarily intended for farming, ranching, and industrial applications, a wide variety of extra equipment could be purchased with the Jeep. Examples of extra equipment are: rear seat, center rear view mirror(Stock CJ-2As came with only a driver side mirror), front passenger seat (Stock CJ-2As only came with a driver seat), canvas top, front PTO, rear PTO, belt pulley drive, capstan winch, governor, rear hydraulic lift, snow plow, welder, generator, mower, disc, front bumper weight, heavy duty springs, dual vacuum windshield wipers (stock CJ-2As were equipped with a manual wiper on the passenger side and a vacuum wiper on the driver side), dual taillights (Stock CJ-2As had a taillight on the driver side and a reflector on the passenger side), and hot-climate radiator, driveshaft guards, heater, side steps, and radiator brush guard.

CJ-2As were produced with very unique, lively, and sometimes downright ugly color combinations. From 1945 to mid-1946, CJ-2As were only available in two color combinations: Pasture Green with Autumn Yellow wheels and Harvest Tan with Sunset Red wheels. Additional color combinations added in mid-1946 were: Princeton Black with Harvard Red or Sunset Red wheels, Michigan Yellow with Pasture Green, Sunset Red or Americar Black wheels, Normandy Blue with Autumn Yellow or Sunset Red wheels, and Harvard Red with Autumn Yellow or Americar Black wheels. The Pasture Green and Harvest Tan combinations were dropped later in 1946. The Harvard Red combinations were dropped in 1947 and replaced with: Picket Gray with Harvard Red wheels, and Luzon Red with Universal Beige wheels. In 1948, the following color combinations were also added: Emerald Green with Universal Beige wheels, Potomac Gary with Harvard Red or Americar Black wheels. For 1949, the Picket Gray, Michigan Yellow, and Normandy Blue combinations were dropped. Olive drab was also available for export models.

On early CJ-2As, the front seats were covered in Slate Gray vinyl and the rear seat (if ordered) was covered in olive drab vinyl. Later in production, seats could be Barcelona Red, Slate Gray, or olive drab.

A total of 214,760 CJ-2As were produced.

CJ-3A[]

Willys mb 1943 06011701.jpg
Production 1949-1953
CJ3A small.jpg

The Willys-Overland CJ-3A was introduced in 1949, and replaced the CJ-2A by the next year. It featured a one-piece windshield with a vent as well as wipers at the bottom, and a beefed up suspension to accommodate the various agricultural implements that were being built for the vehicle.[4] Another difference was a shorter rear wheelwell (the wheelwell from the top front edge to the rear of the body is 32 in on the 3A compared to 34 in on the 2A) and moving the drivers seat rearward.[5] A bare-bones Farm Jeep version was available starting in 1951 with a power takeoff. 131,843 CJ-3As were produced before the series ended in 1953.

CJ-4[]

Production 1951-1953
Wheelbase 81 in
CJ4 small.jpg

Only one Willys-Overland CJ-4[6] was ever built as an experimental concept in 1951. It used the new Willys Hurricane engine and had an 81 inwheelbase.
The CJ-4 body tub was an intermediate design between the straightforward raised hood from the CJ-3B and the all new curved body style of the CJ-5.
The design was rejected and the vehicle eventually sold to a factory employee.

CJ-3B[]

Willyjeep01.jpg
Production 1953-1968
Jeep-willys-colombia-bogota-01.jpg
Farolas-de-jeep-willys.jpg
CJ3B small.jpg

The Willys CJ-3B replaced the CJ-3A in 1953, the same year Willys was sold to Kaiser. Kaiser removed "Overland" from the subcompany name. CJ-3B introduced a higher grille and hood to clear the new Willys Hurricane engine. The CJ-3B was produced until 1968 with a total of about 196,000 [7] produced, although the design was licensed to a number of international manufacturers, including Mitsubishi of Japan and Mahindra of India. Mitsubishi ceased production of vehicles derived from the CJ-3B design in 1998 after selling approximately 200,000 units.[8] Mahindra continues to produce Jeeps based on the Willys CJ-3B today. M606 was a militarized version of CJ-3B.

Mitsubishi Jeep[]

1955 Mitsubishi Jeep J10
ManufacturerMitsubishi Motors
Production 1953-1998
AssemblyTokyo, Japan
SuccessorMitsubishi Pajero
Body style(s) 2-door SUV
2-door convertible
4-door station wagon
LayoutFront engine, four-wheel drive
  • Japanese wikipedia page on Mitsubishi Jeep

The Jeep was introduced to the Japanese market as the Jeep J3 in July 1953 after Willys allowed to agree for Mitsubishi to market the car themselves. The name was not in reference to "CJ3", but rather denoted the fact that 53 "J1"s (CJ3-A with 6-volt electrics) were built for the Japanese regional forest office and circa 500 "J2"s (CJ3-A with 12-volt electrics) were built for the National Safety Forces.[9] Mitsubishi was to continue production of vehicles derived from the CJ-3B design until August 1998, when tighter emissions and safety standards finally made the Jeep obsolete. In total, they built approximately 200,000 units. Short, medium, and long wheelbases were available, as well as a variety of bodystyles and gasoline as well as diesel engines.[10]

The original J3 was a basic, doorless and roofless version, still with left hand drive even though the Japanese drive on the left. The first right-hand drive versions didn't appear until nearly eight years later (J3R/J11R). The original J3 and its derivatives were equipped with the 2199 cc F-head "Hurricane" (called JH4 by Mitsubishi, for Japanese Hurricane 4-cylinder) inline four cylinder, originally producing 70 PS at 4,000 rpm.[11] In 1955 a slightly longer wheelbase J10 which could seat six was added, and in 1956 the J11 appeared, a two-door "delivery wagon" with a full metal body. This was considerably longer, at 433 cm versus 339 cm for the J3.

Local production of the JH4 engine commenced in 1955. A locally developed diesel version (KE31) was introduced for the JC3 in 1958, originally with 56 PS at 3,500 rpm but with 61 PS at 3,600 rpm a couple of years later.[11] By 1962, the output of the gasoline JH4 engine had crept up to 76 PS. By the time of the introduction of the longer J20 in 1960, a six seater like the J10 but with a differently configurated (more permanent) front windshield as well as available metal doors, Mitsubishi had also added small diagonal skirts to the leading edge of the Jeep's front fenders. This style was to remain the last change to the sheetmetal up front until the end of Mitsubishi Jeep production in 1998.

CJ-5[]

Jeep CJ5
CJ-5 with V6 engine
Also called Jeep Shahbaz (Pars Khodro)[12]
Production 1954-1983
Engine(s)Willys Hurricane F-head I4
Perkins Diesel
225 cu in (3.7 L) DauntlessV6
151 cu in (2.5 L) Iron DukeI4
232 cu in (3.8 L) AMC I6
258 cu in (4.2 L) AMC I6
304 cu in (5 L) AMC V8
Transmission(s) 3-speed manual
4-speed manual
Wheelbase 81.0 in (1954-1971)
83.5 in} (1972-1983)
Length 138.2 in
Width 68.5 in
Height 67.7 in
Curb weight 2665 lb
RelatedJeep DJ-5
CJ5 small.jpg

The Willys CJ-5 (after 1964 Jeep CJ-5) was influenced by new corporate owner, Kaiser, and the Korean War M38A1 Jeep. It was intended to replace the CJ-3B, but that model continued in production. The CJ-5 repeated this pattern, continuing in production for three decades while three newer models appeared. "The CJ-5 has the distinct honor of being a vehicle that was hard to kill off... equaling the longest production run of note."[13] A total of 603,303 CJ-5s were produced between 1954 and 1983.

In 1965, Kaiser bought the casting rights to the Buick 225 cu in (3.7 L) V6Dauntless and the CJ-5 and CJ-6 got a new engine with 155 hp supplementing the Willys Hurricane engine.

A similar model, the Jeep DJ, was based on the CJ.

The company was sold to American Motors (AMC) in 1970, and the GM engine was retired after the 1971 model year. (GM's Buick division repurchased the engine tooling in the early 1970s which served as the powerplant in several GM vehicles.) The "Trac-Lok" limited-slip differential replaced the "Powr-Lok" in 1971.

American Motors began using their own engines in 1972. Replacing the Hurricane was the one-barrel 232 cu in (3.8 L) (except in California). Optional was a one-barrel 258 cu in (4.2 L) (standard in California). Also in 1972, AMC's 304 cu in (5 L) engine became available in the same tune as a base V8 muscle car. To accommodate the new engines the fenders and hood were stretched 5 in starting in 1972 and the wheelbase was stretched 3 in. Other drive train changes took place then as well including the front axle became a full-floating Dana 30.

In 1976 the tub and frame were modified slightly from earlier versions. The windshield frame also changed meaning that tops from 1955-1975 will not fit a 1976-1983 CJ-5 and vice-versa.

In 1979, the standard engine become the 258 cu in (4.2 L) that now featured a two-barrel carburetor.

From 1980 to 1983, the CJ-5 came standard with a "Hurricane"-branded version of the GMIron DukeI4.

Several special CJ-5 models were produced:

  • 1973 Super Jeep
  • 1977-1983 Golden Eagle
  • 1979 Silver Anniversary

Early Tuxedo Park models were trim lines, but the Tuxedo Park Mark IV was claimed as a separate model than the other CJ series (marked in 1965 as the "Universal"), with more differences than past models. The Tuxedo Park Mark IV was an attempt to crack the mass market; it was, according to Jeep, “a new idea in sports cars ... the sportiest, most FUNctional car on the automotive scene.” It added to the standard CJ chrome bumpers, hood latches, gas cap, mirror, and tail lamp trim. 81 and 101 inch wheelbases were available, with a variety of convertible top and seat colors, and front bucket seats in “pleated British calf grain vinyl.” Sales of this model, introduced in 1965, were low.[20]

In Australia, a unique variant of the CJ5/CJ6 was produced in limited numbers. In 1965, when the CJ was given the all-new Buick V6, Jeep saw the need for something similar in Australia. As such, they began to fit Falcon 6 cylinder engines to them at their Rocklea factory in Queensland. The jeep was fitted with an engine, pedal box and clutch/brake system corresponding to the equivalent Falcon at the time; i.e. a 1965 CJ5 would be fitted with 1965 Falcon engine/clutch components. When the Falcon received a hydraulic clutch system, so too did the Jeep. Combat 6 jeeps were also fitted with Australian Borg Warner differentials, and Borg Warner brand gearboxes. Unfortunately there is very little documentation about these jeeps, and often the only way to conclusively identify them is by owner history. Web page describing Jeep's presence in Australia, including the "Combat 6"

CJ-6[]

Production 1955-1975
Engine(s) F-head 4 cylinder
Perkins Diesel
225 CID V6Dauntless
Iron DukeI4
304 CIDV8
Wheelbase 101 in

The CJ-6 was simply a 20 inch longer-wheelbase (101 in) CJ-5. Introduced in 1955 as a 1956 model, the CJ-6 was never very popular in the United States. Most CJ6 models were sold to Sweden and South America. The U.S. Forest Service put a number CJ-6 Jeeps in to use. American sales ended in 1975. Just 50,172 had been made when the series went out of production completely in 1981. Just as in the CJ-5, the V6 and V8 engine choices appeared in 1965 and 1972. Former President Ronald Reagan owned a CJ-6 and used it on his California Ranch.[21]

CJ-5A and CJ-6A[]

Production 1964-1968

From 1964-1968 Kaiser elevated the Tuxedo Park from just a trim package to a separate model for the CJ-5A and CJ-6A. A Tuxedo Park Mark IV is signified by a different prefix from a normal CJ-5 with a VIN prefix of 8322, while a normal CJ-5 VIN prefix is 8305 from 1964-1971.

CJ-7[]

Jeep CJ7
Production 1976-1986
Engine(s) 150 cu in (2.5L) AMC I4
151 cu in (2.5L) GM Iron Duke I4
232 cu in (3.8L) AMC I6
258 cu in (4.2L) AMC I6
304 cu in (% L)AMC V8
145 cu in (2.4L) Isuzu Diesel C240
Transmission(s) 5-speed manual
4-speed manual
3-speed automatic
Wheelbase 93.3 in
Length 148 in
Width 68.5 in
Height 67.7 in
Curb weight 2707 lb[22]
CJ7 small.jpg
1980CJ7.JPG

The Jeep CJ-7 featured a longer wheelbase than the CJ-5 and lacked the noticeable curvature of the doors previously seen on the CJ-5. The other main difference to the CJ-5 was to the chassis which hitherto consisted of two parallel longitudinal main c-section rails. To help improve vehicle handling and stability the rear section of the chassis stepped out to allow the road springs and dampers to be mounted closer to the outside of the body. It was introduced in 1976 and 379,299 were built during 11 years of production.

The CJ-7 featured an optional new automatic all-wheel drive system called Quadra-Trac, as well as a part-time two speed transfer case; an automatic transmission was also an option. Other features included an optional molded hardtop, and steel doors. The CJ-7 was also available in Renegade and an upgraded Laredo model. Noticeable by their different body decals, the Laredo model featured nicer seats, steering wheel tilt, and a chrome package that included the bumpers, front grill, and mirrors. An optional Trak-Lok differential was available for the rear. Rear axle ratio typically 3.54, but later went up to 2.73.

The reports of the CJ7 were different in each type of engine: the 2.4 liter diesel was mated to the short 4.10 axle (in both Renegade and Laredo), while the 4.2 and 2.5 straight sixes used 3.73 and AMC V8 304-powered models (produced 1976-1981, which became part of the Golden Eagle version) used 3.55.

From 1976 to 1980 was mounted a Dana 20 transfer case, Dana 30 front axle (27- or 31-spline), and an 29-spline AMC 20 rear axle, while in recent years, Laredo package added tachometer, chrome bumpers, hooks[clarification needed] and interior, comfortable leather seats, and clock. In 1980, the Laredo was first fitted with a Dana 44 rear end and Dana 300; the 300 is still in production and highly sought after by lovers of off-road.

During its 11 years, the CJ-7 had various equipment packages:

  • Renegade 1976-1986 (2.4D L6-2.5-4.2-5.0 V8)
  • Golden Eagle 1976-1979 (5.0 V8)
  • Laredo 1982-1986 (2.4D-4.2 l6)
  • Jamboree Edition (Limited Edition 2500 models which were built for the 30th anniversary 2.5 and 4.2)
  • Limited 1982-1983 (Only around 2000 total Limiteds were produced as a more luxurious upscale flagship model and featured a distinctive "black mask" windshield frame treatment and other unique features)

A diesel-powered version was made in the Ohio factory for export only. The engines were provided by General Motors, the owners of Isuzu Motor Cars. Production of this diesel version is believed to have been only between 1980 and 1982. This model had the Isuzu C240 engine, T176 transmission, Dana 300 transfer case although there are reports of some being produced with the Dana 20. Typically they had 4.1 ratio, narrow track axles.

The CJ-7 continues to be used in the sport of mud racing, with either the stock body or a fiberglass replica. It is also a favorite for rock crawling.

Engines

  • 150 cu in (2.5 L) AMC I4
  • 151 cu in (2.5 L) GM Iron Duke I4
  • 232 cu in (3.8 L) AMC I6
  • 258 cu in (4.2 L) AMC I6 99.4 PS (73 kW; 98 hp), 261 N·m (193 lb·ft)
  • 304 cu in (5 L) AMC V8 127 PS (93 kW; 125 hp), 296 N·m (218 lb·ft)[21]
  • 145 cu in (2.4 L) Isuzu Diesel C240


Transmissions

  • Warner T-18 (4 speed)
  • Borg-Warner T-4 (4 speed)
  • Borg-Warner T-5 (5 speed)
  • Tremec T-150 (3 speed manual)
  • Tremec T-176 (4 speed manual)
  • Borg-Warner SR-4 (4 speed)
  • GM TH-400 (3 speed automatic)
  • Chrysler TF-999 (3 speed automatic transmission - 4.2L)
  • Chrysler TF-904 (3 speed automatic transmission - 2.5L)

Transfer Cases

  • Dana 20 (1976–79)
  • Dana 300 (1980–86)
  • Borg-Warner QuadraTrac #1339 (1976–1979)

Axles

  • Dana 30 Front (1976–86)
  • 2-Piece AMC 20 Rear (1976–86)
  • Dana 44 Rear (1986)

CJ-8 (Scrambler)[]

Jeep CJ8
Production 1981-1986
Body style(s) 2-door pickup truck
Transmission(s) 5-speed manual
3-speed automatic
Wheelbase 103 in

The Jeep (CJ-8) Scrambler was a pickup truck version of the CJ-7, introduced in 1981. It featured a 103 in wheelbase and a pickup bed. Only 27,792 were built in the five years of production before being replaced by the similarly-sized Comanche.

The Jeep Scrambler (CJ-8) did not offer the Quadra-Trac system. The majority of Jeep Scramblers (CJ-8) used the traditional transfer case and manual front-locking hubs to engage the four-wheel drive. Most Scramblers (CJ-8) used a four- or five-speed standard transmission but a three-speed automatic transmission was an available option.

A full length steel hardtop CJ-8 based on the Scrambler was made for the Alaskan Postal Service, using right hand drive and automatic transmissions. Instead of the rear tailgate the steel hardtop utilized a hinged barn door opening to the back. There were only 230 of these produced and sold in the US. This version was also widely sold in Venezuela and Australia as the "CJ8 Overlander", with small differences including full length rear windows on the Overlander.

Former U.S. President Ronald Reagan also owned a blue Scrambler (CJ-8) and used it on his California "Rancho del Cielo" property (image)[23] with the license plate "Gipper."[24]

CJ-10[]

Production 1981-1985
Body style(s) 2-door pickup truck
Engine(s) Nissan SD33 3.3l 6 cylinder Diesel
Jeep cj10.jpg
CJ10.JPG

The Jeep CJ-10 was a CJ-based pickup truck. Produced from 1981 through 1985, it was sold mainly as an export vehicle, though some were used by the United States Air Force for use as an aircraft pulling vehicle (see CJ-10a). They featured square headlights mounted in the fenders and a 9-slot grille, a homage to the old Jeeps of WWII which originally had a 9 slot grille (the civilian model, the CJ-2 and 2a, were given a 7 slot grille as a distinction between the military and civilian models).

Image link

CJ-10a[]

Production 1984-1986
Body style(s) 2-door flightline aircraft tug
Engine(s) Nissan SD33 3.3l 6 cylinder Diesel

The Jeep CJ-10a was a CJ10-based flightline aircraft tug. Produced in Mexico from 1984 through 1986, were used by the United States Air Force for use as an aircraft pulling vehicle. About 2300 of them were produced. Image link

See also[]

Notes[]

  1. ↑Flory, J. "Kelly", Jr. American Cars 1960-1972 (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Coy, 2004), p.412.
  2. ↑"The CJ2A Story". Thecj2apage.com. http://www.thecj2apage.com/story.html. Retrieved 2010-09-29. 
  3. ↑"The CJ2A Story". Thecj2apage.com. http://www.thecj2apage.com/story.html. Retrieved 2010-09-29. 
  4. ↑Cary, Reed. "The CJ-3A Universal Jeep", retrieved on 2009-09-28.
  5. ↑"The CJ-3A", retrieved on 2009-09-28.
  6. ↑Holland, Bob (2008-03-21). "Jeep's mystery CJ4". Blogs.edmunds.com. http://blogs.edmunds.com/straightline/2008/03/jeeps-mystery-cj4.html#more. Retrieved 2010-09-29. 
  7. ↑"CJ-3B History". Film.queensu.ca. 2004-11-11. http://www.film.queensu.ca/cj3b/History.html. Retrieved 2010-09-29. 
  8. ↑"Jeeps in Japan". Film.queensu.ca. http://www.film.queensu.ca/Cj3b/World/Japan2.html. Retrieved 2010-09-29. 
  9. ↑Cite error: Invalid tag; no text was provided for refs named
  10. ↑Redmond, Derek (2010-05-01). "Jeeps in Japan". Film.queensu.ca. http://www.film.queensu.ca/Cj3b/World/Japan2.html. Retrieved 2011-05-05. 
  11. 11.011.1Ozeki, p. 140
  12. ↑http://web.parskhodro.ir/pdf/Parskhodro%20history.pdf
  13. ↑Tellem, Tori. History of the CJ-5 - Jeep Autopsy: CJ-5 One Of The "Unstoppables" JP Magazine, retrieved on 2009-08-15.
  14. ↑http://www.street2mud.com/albums/album02/JeepCJ5Camper_5.jpg
  15. ↑http://www.street2mud.com/albums/album02/JeepCJ5Camper_6.jpg
  16. ↑http://www.street2mud.com/albums/album02/JeepCJ5Camper_7.jpg
  17. ↑http://www.street2mud.com/albums/album02/JeepCJ5Camper_8.jpg
  18. ↑http://www.street2mud.com/albums/album02/JeepCJ5Camper_9.jpg
  19. ↑http://www.street2mud.com/albums/album02/JeepCJ5Camper_10.jpg
  20. ↑"Jeep for 1965". Allpar. http://www.allpar.com/trucks/jeep/1965.html. Retrieved 2008-09-24. 
  21. ↑Gipper "CJ-6 April 1984" Ray's Jeeps FAQs, 2005, retrieved on 2008-09-17.
  22. ↑"1979 Jeep CJ-7 car technical specifications from Carfolio.com - 0 door 4.2 litre (4235 cc) Inline 6 99.4 PS, 2X3Template:Clarifyme speed manual". Carfolio.com. http://www.carfolio.com/specifications/models/car/?car=58366. Retrieved 2010-12-03. 
  23. ↑Marsden, Rachel. My Personal Glimpse into the Heart and Soul of Ronald Reagan, June 9, 2004, retrieved on 2008-05-27.
  24. ↑"Lifestyles: Reagan's Ranch, a Symbol of His Nostalgia for a More Simple Life" The Orange County Register, June 20, 2004, retrieved on 2008-05-27.

See Also[]

Sours: https://jeep.fandom.com/wiki/Jeep_CJ

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