Megumi haruna

Megumi haruna DEFAULT

2021–22 WE League season

The 2021–22 WE League, also known as the 2021–22 Yogibo WE League (Japanese: 2021–22 Yogibo WEリーグ, Hepburn: 2021–22 Yogibo WE Rīgu) for sponsorship reasons, will be the 1st season of the WE League, the top Japanese women's professional league for association football clubs, since its establishment in 2020. The league will begin on 2 September 2021 and scheduled to the end on 21 May 2022.

Organisation[edit]

The WE League is Japan's first fully professional women's soccer league, and 2021–22 is the WE League's inaugural season.

Competition[edit]

Preseason[edit]

Preseason ran from 24 April 2021 to 19 June 2021 prior to the Tokyo Olympics. In the first preseason match, INAC Kobe Leonessa defeated AC Nagano Parceiro 3–0.[5]

Regular season[edit]

The regular season will start on 12 September 2021[6] and finish on 21 May 2022.[7]

Clubs[edit]

Stadiums and locations[edit]

Club Stadium Capacity
MyNavi SendaiYurtec Stadium Sendai19,694
Q&A Stadium Miyagi49,133
Urawa RedsUrawa Komaba Stadium21,500
Omiya Ardija VentusNACK5 Stadium Omiya15,500
AS Elfen SaitamaKumagaya Athletic Stadium15,392
JEF United ChibaFukuda Denshi Arena19,781
ZA Oripri Stadium14,051
Tokyo Verdy BelezaAjinomoto Field Nishigaoka7,258
Nojima Stella KanagawaSagamihara Gion Stadium15,300
AC Nagano ParceiroNagano U Stadium15,491
Albirex NiigataDenka Big Swan Stadium42,300
Niigata Athletic Stadium18,671
INAC Kobe LeonessaNoevir Stadium Kobe30,132
Sanfrecce Hiroshima ReginaHiroshima Koiki Park Football Stadium6,000

Personnel and kits[edit]

Managerial changes[edit]

[icon]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2021)

Team Outgoing manager Manner of departure Date of vacancy Incoming manager Date of
appointment

Foreign players[edit]

The JFA subsidizes salaries for players from Southeast Asian member federations, while the league itself subsidizes players from top-ranked FIFA countries.[8]

League table[edit]

Updated to match(es) played on 17 October 2021. Source: Standings | Yogibo WE League
Rules for classification: 1) Points; 2) Goal difference; 3) Number of goals scored.

Results[edit]

Positions by round[edit]

Updated to match(es) played on 17 October 2021. Source: Standings | Yogibo WE League

Results by round[edit]

Updated to match(es) played on 17 October 2021. Source: Matches | Yogibo WE League
W = Win; D = Draw; L = Lose

All match results[edit]

Updated to match(es) played on 17 October 2021. Source: Matches | Yogibo WE League
Legend: Blue = home team win; Yellow = draw; Red = away team win.

Season statistics[edit]

[icon]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (October 2021)

As of 17 October 2021

Pre-season matches[edit]

Overview[edit]

  • Title: 2021 WE League pre-season match
  • Dates: 24 April – 19 June 2021
  • Organizer: WE League
  • 主管: Each home club
  • Rules and regulations: match duration 90 minutes(first haf, second harf 45 minutes each)の試合を行い、勝敗が決しない場合は引き分けとする。順位の決定は行わない
  • Number of matches: 6 rounds、22 matches (各クラブはホーム2試合、アウェイ2試合の計4試合に出場する)
  • Official website: 2021 WE League pre-season match(in Japanese)

Results[edit]

See also[edit]

National association
National league(s)
National team(s)

References[

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2021%E2%80%9322_WE_League_season

Short-term skin problems in infants aged 0–3 months affect food allergies or atopic dermatitis until 2 years of age, among infants of the general population

Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunologyvolume 15, Article number: 74 (2019) Cite this article

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Abstract

Background

This study examined whether infants aged 0–3 months exhibited long-term effects of using a moisturizer skincare intervention and whether a short-term skin problem resulted in the subsequent development of food allergies or atopic dermatitis (AD) until the age of 2 years.

Methods

This study was a follow-up of a completed randomized control trial (RCT) of moisturizer skincare for infants aged 0–3 months. A self-reported questionnaire was mailed to the parents of children aged 1–2 years who had participated in the RCT. Data were analyzed using a Chi square test, by intention to treat analysis, and by multiple logistic regression.

Results

Of 155 infants, 22 (14.2%) and 28 (18.1%) had food allergies and AD/eczema until 2 years of age, respectively. No significant difference was seen in food allergies or AD between the group that received moisturizer skincare intervention and the control group. On the contrary, food allergies until 2 years of age were significantly associated with short-term (4–7 days) and long-term (more than 7 days) body skin problems occurring in the first 3 months of life, a family history of AD, and the time of starting complementary food. High value of face transepidermal water loss at 3 months of age was also associated with food allergies. Moreover, a short duration of severe diaper dermatitis during the first 3 months, a family history of AD, and being male were significantly associated with AD/eczema until the age of 2 years.

Conclusions

After adjusting for family history of AD, a short-term skin problem in the first 3 months of life was significantly associated with the development of food allergies or AD/eczema until the age of 2 years. Prevention or prompt treatment of skin problems in newborns is essential for preventing future allergic diseases.

Trial registration This was a follow-up study conducted 2 years after the completed RCT of a moisturizer skincare intervention for early infants, which was registered in the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000013260)

Background

Skin conditions in early infants have received attention as a mechanism involved in the onset of infant allergies. This mechanism is described by the “dual allergen exposure hypothesis” [1], which proposes that skin barrier dysfunction causes percutaneous sensitization of allergens before an infant commences complementary food. A number of previous studies have shown that skin barrier dysfunction, particularly early onset atopic dermatitis (AD) and high transepidermal water loss (TEWL), can cause food allergies in children [2, 3]. The occurrence of eczema in the first 2 or 3 months of life is associated with food allergies at 1 and 3 years of age [3, 4]. In addition, AD severity is known to be related to subsequent food allergies [5]. Application of moisturizer to protect skin barrier function has been shown to reduce the onset of AD and sensitization to egg white among high-risk infants with a family history of AD [6, 7]. Therefore, identifying and treating skin conditions, such as AD and other skin problems, in early infanthood is important for preventing childhood allergic diseases.

However, whether the duration of skin problems in infants plays an important role in percutaneous sensitization to allergens is unclear. Skin problems can develop in various parts of the body and can appear as infantile skin problems on the face or as diaper dermatitis. However, the complete prevention of infantile skin problems may be virtually impossible. A previous study investigated the presence or absence of eczema in a patient’s past 1 month to 1 year history [3], but did not evaluate the severity or duration of skin problems and the findings were potentially subject to recall bias. However, whether differences in the duration of infant skin problems affect subsequent allergic diseases is unclear.

Therefore, to better understand the possibility of developing allergies, understanding the role of the parts of the body affected by and the duration of skin problems early in a child’s life is important. If a relationship between a short-term skin problem and subsequent allergic disease exists, there is a need for prompt medical intervention at the time an infant develops the skin problem. The relationship, therefore, between the type or duration of skin problems and subsequent allergic diseases needs to be clarified.

Many previous studies based on the dual allergen exposure hypothesis have been conducted among high-risk populations with a family history of AD. Conversely, few studies have analyzed the general population, or those considered to have a low risk of allergic disease. To understand the relationship between infantile skin problems and subsequent allergic diseases and to investigate methods for the prevention of allergic diseases, low-risk populations should also be studied.

We previously conducted a randomized control trial (RCT) of a skincare moisturizer intervention among infants aged 0–3 months that aimed to improve the skin barrier function of infants and reduce the incidence of skin problems for up to 3 months after birth [8]. Furthermore, data collected regarding the affected body parts and duration of skin problems in early infancy can be used to better understand the occurrence of skin problems in infants 0–3 months and their association with allergic diseases at the age of 2 years.

Methods

The aim

This study first aimed to investigate whether moisturizing skin care for infants could prevent subsequent allergic disease among the infants regardless of their family histories of AD. Second, we examined the relationship between various aspects of infantile skin problems in the first 3 months of life and the development of allergic diseases (food allergies or AD) until 2 years of age.

Study design and setting

This was a follow-up study conducted 2 years after the completed RCT of a moisturizer skincare intervention for early infants, which was registered in the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000013260). The parents of these infants were recruited between March 2014 and February 2015 (when their newborns were 1–3 days old), at an obstetrics hospital in Tokyo. Skin barrier function, skin problems, and demographic data were collected during the participants’ first 3 months of life and details of that study are published elsewhere [8]. The present study was conducted by mailing self-reported follow-up questionnaires to parents whose infants were aged 1–2 years old, between March 2015 and February 2017. The questionnaire asked about allergic diseases outcomes and focused on potentially related factors.

Participants

The inclusion criteria for the RCT were as follows: (i) newborns born at the institution at a minimum gestational age of 35 weeks, (ii) newborns born to Asian parents, (iii) newborns who received no medical treatment in the pediatric ward, and (iv) newborns who had a mother who was able to speak Japanese.

The intervention was performed between birth and 3 months of age. The intervention group performed moisturizing skincare as follows: (i) routine bathing every 2 days (reduced bathing frequency) and (ii) use of a moisturizer one or more times per day. The control group performed the common skincare regimen used in Japan, which was as follows: (i) routine bathing daily and (ii) no moisturizer. At the research hospital, midwives traditionally recommend to all mothers that they bathe their newborn daily.

Outcome (allergic diseases until 2 years of age)

We used self-reported questionnaires administered to the parents when their infants were aged 1–2 years. The questionnaire included items concerning the child’s current skin condition (good condition, almost good condition, occasional skin problems, dry skin, have skin problems frequently and not using steroids, have skin problems frequently and using steroids, and AD diagnosis) and allergic diseases (food allergy, asthma, and other allergies). In this study, “many skin problems and using steroids” and “diagnosed atopic dermatitis” were both considered AD/eczema. We have used the following definitions of skin conditions throughout this study: (i) a “skin problem” occurred in infants aged 0–3 months and was reported by parents, (ii) “eczema” occurred in children from 3 months to 2 years old and the parents had been instructed by a physician to use topical steroid ointment, and (iii) “AD” had been diagnosed by a physician when the child was from 3 months to 2 years old. In addition, we assessed whether participants had self-reported food allergies by asking, “Does your infant have any food allergies?” If parents answered “yes”, infants were considered as having a “food allergy”. If infants had a food allergy, we asked what food allergy their infants had, and when the parents recognized their infants had a food allergy.

Skin barrier function

The infant’s skin barrier function was evaluated in the previous RCT by measuring the TEWL values (Tewameter TM300; Courage + Khazaka Electronic, Cologne, Germany) when the infants were 4 days old (baseline), 1 month old, and 3 months old (main outcome of the RCT). These values were calculated by taking the average of the TEWL value of the forehead and cheek. All measurements were conducted in hospital rooms with the temperature controlled at 24–28 °C for at least 5 min after the infant entered the room and at least 2 h after the parents had cared for their infant’s skin.

Skin problems (infants aged 0–3 months)

We evaluated skin problems based on the infants’ skin diaries, which were completed by their parents. The parents recorded skin conditions assessed as follows: redness (none, small area, or middle to large area); papules (none or only 1–2, small area, or middle to large area); dryness (none, small area, or middle area to cracks); and desquamation (none, small area, or large area). The condition was recorded for 3 areas of their infant: the diaper area, face, and body (defined as an area other than face or diaper area, including limbs, chest, abdomen, and back).

The presence of skin problems on the face or body was determined using an original scale based on the Neonatal Skin Condition Score [9], which rates a skin condition between 3 and 9 points. In our study, moderate and severe skin problems were defined as at least 5 (level 3 on the scale) and 7 (level 5 on the scale) points, respectively. Thus, in this study, we defined a “severe body skin problem” as extensive (over 50% of the body) dryness on the face or on the body (arms or trunk). Parents were meant to choose three patterns: (1) moderate area of cracked dry skin and papules (moderate to large area); (2) moderate area of cracked dry skin, small area of papules, and small area of desquamation; and (3) small area of dry skin and moderate to large area of papules and small area of desquamation.

The presence of diaper dermatitis was determined using the diaper rash and erythema scoring scale [10], which rates diaper dermatitis on 7 levels ranging from none to severe. Diaper dermatitis was defined as moderate (level 5 on the erythema scoring scale) when the following were observed: redness over a large area (10–50%) or very intense redness over a very small area (< 2%), and/or single to several areas of papules (10–50%) with 0–5 pustules, and slight desquamation or edema [10]. For “severe diaper dermatitis” the diaper area must have had a moderate to large area of redness, or a small or moderate to large area of papules, and a small area or large area of desquamation.

In the present study, we categorized the duration of skin problems as follows: almost no skin problem (0–3 days), short-term skin problem (4–7 days), and long-term skin problem (more than 7 days). We hypothesized that skin problems lasting several days (more than 3 days) in a row meant that the infants had experienced repeated cutaneous exposure that caused an allergy. In addition, not only long durations of skin problems, but also short-term skin problems within 1 week were high risks for experiencing cutaneous exposure.

Demographic data and external irritant exposure

The following demographic data were collected from the newborns’ medical charts: delivery method, mother’s parity, sex, gestational age, and birth weight. The family history of AD was collected from questionnaires completed during the previous RCT. The 1 year of age questionnaire included questions regarding when the infant began to eat complementary food.

Statistical methods

First, we compared the onset of allergic diseases between infants with and without a family history of AD using the Chi square test. Next, univariate analyses for food allergies or AD/eczema until 2 years of age and the characteristics of the infants’ skin problems were performed using the Chi square test or Student’s t-test.

Possible long-term effects of the previously-described RCT intervention on the development of subsequent outcomes (food allergies or AD/eczema) were analyzed using the Chi square test in intention to treat and per protocol analyses (applying emollient more than 0.7 times per day from 0 to 3 months of age).

Lastly, the relationship between skin problems from 0 to 3 months of age and food allergies or AD/eczema until 2 years old was assessed using multiple logistic regression analysis. The analysis was adjusted for the effects of variables found to be associated (p < 0.1) with the presence of diaper dermatitis in the univariate analysis.

The statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical software version 22.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). All p-values were two sided, and a p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results

Participants

We obtained consent from 227 parents to participate in the present study, and 200 completed a 3-month diary of their infants’ skin conditions. Of these 200 parents, 15 were excluded because they had moved to new (unknown) addresses before the infant was 2 years of age, and the follow-up questionnaire could not be mailed. Therefore, we sent the questionnaire to 185 parents, of whom 156 (84.3%) returned and completed both questionnaires, for 1 year and 2 years of age. One participant was excluded from analysis because she failed to answer the question of whether she had a family history of AD. Therefore, data from a final total of 155 infants were analyzed.

Allergic disease outcomes

Of the 155 infants, 22 infants (14.2%) had a food allergy until 2 years of age. The most common allergen was egg with 19 infants (86.4% of infants with a food allergy), followed by cow milk with 9 infants (40.9% of infants with a food allergy). Eight infants (36.3% of infants with a food allergy) had multiple food allergies (details of the allergens are shown in Additional file 1: Table S1).

A total of 15 infants were diagnosed with AD by a physician until 2 years of age. In addition, 13 infants were not diagnosed with AD by a physician, but their parents reported that the infants often had eczema and that they were instructed to use steroid ointment by a physician. Therefore, we considered 28 infants (18.1%) to have had AD/eczema. Eleven infants (7.1%) had both AD/eczema and a food allergy.

Table 1 summarizes the relationship between the allergy outcome data and the family history of AD. Our findings confirmed that a family history of AD was strongly associated with the AD/eczema and food allergy outcomes in the infants. In contrast, we detected no meaningful relationship between asthma and a family history of AD.

Full size table

Relationship between allergic diseases until 2 years old and the moisturizer intervention in the first 3 months of life

No significant differences were found in the development of a food allergy and AD/eczema until 2 years of age between the moisturizer RCT intervention and control groups in the intention to treat analysis (Table 2). Similarly, no significant differences were found in the per protocol analysis, which indicated that the development of food allergies and AD/eczema until 2 years of age did not differ between the moisturizer group and the control group (Additional file 1: Table S2).

Full size table

Relationship between allergic diseases until 2 years of age and duration of skin problems in the first 3 months of life

Table 3 shows the characteristics of the participants and their allergic diseases until 2 years of age. Table 4 shows the relationship between the duration of skin problems from 0 to 3 months of age and allergic diseases. The duration of the infants’ severe body skin problems was significantly related to a food allergy until 2 years of age (p = 0.001).

Full size table

Full size table

Finally, 4 factors were found to be significantly related to food allergies by multiple logistic regression: a family history of AD (adjusted OR [aOR], 4.59; 95% CI 1.66–12.72); a short-term severe body skin problem (4–7 days) from 0 to 3 months of age (aOR, 27.55; 95% CI 1.92–395.47); a long-term severe body skin problem (more than 7 days) from 0 to 3 months of age (aOR, 8.36; 95% CI 1.20–58.23), and starting complementary food after 6 months of age (aOR, 3.79; 95% CI 1.16–12.46) (Table 5). These factors were significantly associated after adjusting for the moisturizer intervention group in the RCT.

Full size table

Moreover, high values of TEWL at 1 or 3 months of age, the main outcomes of the moisturizer intervention trial, were significantly related to AD/eczema after adjusting for a family history of AD (Additional file 1: Tables S3, S4). However, the face TEWL at 3 months of age was excluded from the multiple logistic regression because of the significant relationship (as determined by the t-test) between the factors “had severe body skin problems for more than 3 days from 0 to 3 months of age” and the TEWL at 3 months of age (had skin problem vs none; 22.52 g/m2/h vs 14.83 g/m2/h, p < 0.001).

Furthermore, 3 factors were found to be significantly associated with AD/eczema until 2 years of age in the multiple logistic regression analysis: a family history of AD (aOR, 5.67; 95% CI 2.18–14.71), diaper dermatitis lasting 4–7 days between 0 and 3 months of age (aOR, 7.84; 95% CI 1.58–39.04), and male sex (aOR, 4.30; 95% CI 1.53–12.03) (Table 6). These factors were significantly associated after adjusting for the moisturizer intervention group in the RCT.

Full size table

Discussion

We found a significant relationship between short-term skin problems in infants from 0 to 3 months of age and food allergies or AD/eczema until 2 years of age after adjusting for a family history of AD. However, no significant differences in the development of food allergies and AD/eczema until 2 years of age were noted between infants who received the moisturizer intervention from 0 to 3 months of age and the control group.

A previous study showed that having a skin problem lasting more than 2 weeks was related to a subsequent egg allergy [6]. A novel finding of the present study was that skin problems lasting as short as 4–7 days in infants aged 0–3 months increased the risk of being exposed to allergens by percutaneous sensitization. In addition, moderate skin problems did not relate to subsequent food allergies. This might mean that the treatment of moderate skin problems before they become worse (severe skin problems) could prevent percutaneous sensitization. This finding highlights the importance of not only preventing but also treating skin problems promptly in infants to prevent the development of food allergies.

Although our findings showed that diaper dermatitis from 0 to 3 months of age was related to AD until 2 years of age, causality was difficult to determine. Although factors other than short-term severe diaper dermatitis might predict AD development, exposure of skin in the diaper area to allergens by percutaneous sensitization would be unlikely [1]. Because skin in the diaper area is often subjected to irritation [11], the skin here is vulnerable to skin barrier dysfunction, and thus, diaper dermatitis may be more likely to lead to the future onset of AD than other skin problems in infancy. Therefore, diaper dermatitis may indicate a congenital skin vulnerability that may be related to the development of AD.

In this study, the long-term effect of skincare from 0 to 3 months of age on the subsequent development of allergic diseases was not clear. In the previous study, moisturizer was shown to prevent AD among infants with a family history of AD [6]. However, in this study among infants in the general population, we found no such relationship. We speculate the reason for this may be, first, the small sample size in our study [8]. Secondly, although the existence of infantile skin problems has been shown to be important in the development of allergic diseases [4], it is possible that skin moisturizer may not be necessary for infants who do not have a family history of AD. Thus, a high risk approach might be appropriate in preventing AD using a moisturizer. And lastly, the intervention in our previous RCT included not only the application of moisturizer but also a reduced frequency of bathing [8]. Bathing affects removal of materials, including allergens, from the skin. Thus, reducing the frequency of bathing might also affect allergen removal, leading to percutaneous sensitization due to prolonged exposure to allergens. However, moisturizer intervention improved the value of TEWL at 3 months of age. The current study showed that TEWL at 3 months of age was related to a subsequent food allergy until 2 years of age. Therefore, moisturizer intervention might be able to prevent a food allergy. Future research is needed to elucidate the efficacy of moisturizer or frequency of bathing for preventing allergic diseases.

Our findings confirm that a family history of AD affects the development of childhood allergic diseases. In the present study, 25–30% of children with a family history of AD developed AD or food allergies. This result is similar to a previous study that reported that 37.9% of children whose father or mother had AD developed AD before 4 years of age [12]. However, even in cases in which both parents do not have AD, approximately 8% of children develop allergic diseases (Table 1). This proportion is not negligible, but many previous studies have included only high-risk children in their study populations. Thus, researchers should also consider prevention methods among low-risk children without a family history of AD.

This study had some limitations. First, we assessed allergic diseases using a self-reported questionnaire. Thus, the definitions of food allergies and AD/eczema were not standardized. However, to avoid parents’ subjective assessments, we asked the following question: “When was AD diagnosed?” In addition, the diagnosis was not necessarily obtained from an allergy specialist, which was also a limitation of this study. Secondly, we asked parents to self-report their child’s food allergy, and we did not know whether these reported allergies had been diagnosed by certified allergists. Therefore, we have possibly overestimated food allergies. In addition, we considered multiple allergens a “food allergy” due to the small sample size; these allergens included egg, cow milk, soy, and wheat. We did not know when specific allergenic foods, like egg, had been introduced. Future research should investigate the relationship between skin problems in early infancy and food allergies in early childhood with a larger sample size and analysis of specific allergens. Lastly, although we categorized the duration of skin problems into 3 categories, there was no available evidence for determining these cut off values. We defined “short duration” as having skin problems 3–10 days in the sensitivity analysis. The results of the sensitivity analysis were similar to “short duration defined 3–7 days. Despite this limitation, we showed the novel result that “short-term skin problems” within 1 week were related to subsequent allergic diseases.

Conclusions

This study demonstrated a relationship between the development of allergic diseases until age of 2 years and short-term skin problems during the first 0–3 months of life among infants in the general population. Future studies are needed to investigate the effective skincare methods for the prevention or prompt treatment of skin problems in early infanthood.

Availability of data and materials

The datasets used and analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Abbreviations

atopic dermatitis

randomized control trial

transepidermal water loss

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Acknowledgements

Not applicable.

Funding

This study was supported by the Mitsubishi Foundation (Grants for Social Welfare Activities on 2013) and the Mishima Kaiun Memorial Foundation. Neither study sponsor had any role in the study design; collection, analysis or interpretation of data; or writing of the report.

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Division of Health Sciences and Nursing, Department of Midwifery and Women’s Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan

    Kaori Yonezawa & Megumi Haruna

  2. Division of Nursing Systems, Department of Health Quality and Outcome Research, Global Nursing Research Center, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

    Kaori Yonezawa & Megumi Haruna

Contributions

KY and MH designed this study, performed the statistical analyses, and interpreted the results. KY contributed to data collection. KY prepared the manuscript, and MH provided critical revisions. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kaori Yonezawa.

Ethics declarations

Ethics approval and consent to participate

The research ethics committees of the Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo (#10312), and the hospital where the newborns were recruited (#95) approved the study procedures and protocol. This study conforms to the standards of the Declaration of Helsinki. Written informed consent was obtained from the parents of all newborns in this study, and patient anonymity was preserved using methods approved by the ethics committees.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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Supplementary information

Additional file 1: Table S1.

Details of food allergens. Table S2. Relationship between food allergy or AD/eczema until 2 years old and applying moisturizer in the first 3 months of life. Table S3. Risk factors significantly associated with food allergies including TEWL at 3 months of age. Table S4. Risk factors significantly associated with food allergies including TEWL at 1 month of age.

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Yonezawa, K., Haruna, M. Short-term skin problems in infants aged 0–3 months affect food allergies or atopic dermatitis until 2 years of age, among infants of the general population. Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol15, 74 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13223-019-0385-7

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Keywords

  • Dermatitis, atopic
  • Diaper rash
  • Food hypersensitivity
  • Infant
  • Skin care
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the 2021 china international service trade fair (service trade fair) will be held in beijing from september 2nd to 7th. meanwhile, the global service trade summit will be held on september 2. president xi jinping will deliver a speech at the global service trade summit via video.

as one of the three major exhibition platforms for china's opening to the outside world, the service trade fair has become a leading event in the field of global service trade, and is a close link between china and the world. people from many countries and the media expressed that they look forward to the 2021 service trade fair that will continue to provide opportunities for all parties to deepen cooperation, build consensus, and promote global economic recovery in the post-epidemic era.

"service trade fair has become an important global platform"

this year, the service trade fair will host 5 summit forums, 193 forum meetings and promotion and negotiation activities, as well as 8 side events. more than 10,000 companies from 153 countries and regions have registered to participate in the exhibition, and the world's top 500 and industry-leading companies accounted for 18%, an increase of 9 percentage points from the previous time. the heads of exhibitors and enterprises said that the increase in the attractiveness of the service trade fair stems from china's open cooperation environment and broad development prospects.

tang zhimin, director of the china-asean studies center of the chia university school of management in thailand, said that this year's service trade fair will cover all major areas of service trade, build a platform and provide opportunities for international service trade cooperation, and will inject impetus into the development of global service trade.

"during the service trade fair in 2020, we participated in the winter sports special exhibition, and the response was very good." thomas tajuman, general manager of the czech ski brand alpine china market, said that many european brands have gained more cooperation opportunities through the service trade fair. . "as the beijing winter olympics approach, china's ice and snow sports market will usher in rapid growth. this is a good development opportunity for us."

zvi schiller, chairman of the israel robotics association, said that many professionals and investors are expected to participate in this service trade fair. china has a huge market and strong manufacturing capabilities, and the association is considering establishing a joint r&d center with china.

the panamanian "star" published an article that panama regards the service trade fair as an important boost to the global economic recovery in the post-epidemic era. mark garcia, senior regional consultant of lixin certified public accountants in panama business consulting company, believes that the trade in service is an excellent opportunity to promote cooperation between panama and china in the field of digital economy services. "the service trade fair can allow foreign investors to better understand china, as well as the service trade support and facilitation measures china provides, which will further enhance investors' confidence in long-term investment in china."

"china has become a major trading partner of many countries. the holding of the service trade fair not only conveys to the world china's confidence in opening up to the outside world, but also promotes trade exchanges between china and other economies and builds an important platform for exchanges and cooperation. "brazil business leaders organization china chairman everton monezi said.

wesley douglas, director of the african carbon exchange, is very pleased to see that this year's service trade will include carbon peaking and carbon neutrality as a key issue. “the service trade fair has become an important global platform, and this platform is helpful for solving global problems.” he said that china has provided an important reference for developing countries to practice green development, and african countries have a strong desire for green economic development. , there is an urgent need for related investment and technology introduction. africa and china have great potential for cooperation in these areas.

"digital technology brings hope to the future"

in his speech at the 2020 service trade conference global service trade summit, president xi jinping emphasized that it is necessary to comply with the development trend of digitalization, networking, and intelligence, and work together to eliminate the "digital divide" and promote the digitalization of service trade. the theme of this year's service trade fair is "digital opens up the future, service promotes development". visitors will experience various innovative service products and the latest technologies provided by domestic and foreign enterprises through the service trade fair. in particular, new services centered on the digital economy have received widespread attention from the international community.

yukio kajida, a professor at chuo university in japan, said that in the post-epidemic era, the importance of the digital economy has become more and more prominent. governments and enterprises of various countries are actively promoting the development of the digital economy, and china is at the forefront of this field. this year's service trade fair uses "digitalization" as a key word, which will help promote cooperation and exchanges between global companies in the new situation, and further contribute to global technological innovation, economic development and improvement of people's lives. trade in services will become an important force to promote the recovery of the world economy.

everton monezi said that china’s experience in promoting the application of electronic payment technology is worth learning from latin america. latin american countries are starting to revitalize their economies in order to achieve long-term sustainable development. the service trade fair provides a high-level platform for cooperation between latin america and china, allowing more high-quality latin american companies to enter the chinese market and contribute to the recovery of the world economy.

"digital technology brings hope to the future." susanna gutkovska, acting chief representative of the beijing office of the polish national tourism administration, said that this year's "cloud showroom" at the service trade fair provided them with the opportunity to contact and communicate with their chinese partners. an opportunity for chinese tourists to issue invitations. poland's primorsky province and warsaw tourism organization set up booths in the yunshang exhibition hall to attract visitors. the holding of the service trade fair will help the recovery of the global tourism industry.

karl fei, a professor at the business school of aalto university in finland, believes that china has accumulated a lot of experience in the development of the digital economy. for example, the government provides policy support for enterprises, revitalizes the domestic market for digital services, and supports and encourages innovative companies in this field. share and discuss these experiences with all parties at the service trade conference.

"it is of great significance to the recovery of the world economy"

according to data from the ministry of commerce of china, despite the impact of the epidemic, china's total service imports and exports in 2020 will still exceed rmb 4.5 trillion. in the first half of this year, the added value of china's service industry reached 29.6 trillion yuan, accounting for 55.7% of gdp, providing strong support for the high-quality development of service trade. international sources said that under the background of economic globalization, china's economy is open and inclusive, opening its doors to embrace companies from all over the world, and will contribute wisdom and strength to the deepening of global service trade and investment cooperation.

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as the guest country of this year's service and trade fair, ireland has not only set up exhibition areas for investment, food, health, education, etc., it will also show the unique charm of ireland through ethnic dance performances and movies. four institutions including the irish food board, the trade and technology board, the investment development board, and the tourism board will appear together on the stage of the service trade fair for the first time. fenbar cleary, vice president of the irish-china science and technology exchange association, said that china's total service trade imports may reach us$10 trillion in the next 15 years, which contains huge market opportunities.

mohamed farahart, director of the egyptian pyramid politics and strategic research center, said that the service and trade will build a sound framework for international cooperation, create a healthier business and investment environment, help establish a new operating structure and trade network, and promote service trade. , investment and capital flow.

lu yaoqun, director of the institute of governance and sustainable development of the national university of singapore business school, said that the service trade association is an excellent platform to promote the development of free trade and common prosperity between china, asia and the rest of the world. the service trade association once again confirmed china's long-term commitment to the idea of building a community with a shared future for mankind.

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  • ;">qiu weigong, chairman of the thai-china business council of thailand, said that trade can drive the development of various relations between the two countries. "china's national-level exhibition platforms such as the canton fair, the service trade fair, and the china international import expo will serve as a benchmark for trade, and the world economy will benefit from it."


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    tang zhimin said that open and inclusive service trade is also an important part of the regional comprehensive economic partnership agreement. china has used practical actions to create an open and inclusive environment for cooperation through the holding of service trade fairs and china international import expo. "under the current economic situation, china insists on expanding its opening up to the outside world and leading global cooperation. these measures are of great significance to the recovery of the world economy."

    hanat besek, president of the china association for the promotion of trade in kazakhstan, said that china’s opening to the outside world has evolved from the initial policy preferences to the current institutional opening, which not only benefits the chinese people, but also contributes to the economic development of neighboring countries. significant driving effect.

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    【公式】春菜めぐみ「めぐニャンちゃんねる」ゲスト:松本さゆき①

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    Haruna megumi

    Abstract

    Parents had better to assess their infant’s skin daily to prevent the development of any skin problems. However, there are no standard methods for assessing infant skin at home. This study aimed to validate the assessment of infant face skin conditions by parents as compared to using skin barrier function clinical tests. In addition, we evaluated the degree of agreement between parents and physicians/midwives when assessing an infant’s skin. A cross-sectional study involving 184 infants aged 3 months was conducted. To evaluate the parents’ infant skin assessment, we used the Neonatal Skin Condition Score (NSCS). On the same day, we evaluated the skin barrier function on the infant’s forehead and cheek, including transepidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum hydration, skin pH, and sebum secretion. Skin barrier function values were correlated with infant skin condition assessed by parents, especially in cases of TEWL of the cheek, for which a moderate positive correlation was found between parental assessment score (ρ = 0.448). In addition, infant with skin problems based on parental assessment had a significantly higher TEWL, lower SCH, and higher skin pH. However, there was weak agreement between parental and physician/midwife assessment. Thus, there was a relationship between parental assessment and skin barrier function; thus, parents can use at-home assessment to assist with infant skin care. In the future, research focused on developing methods of examining infant skin conditions should consider incorporate parental daily skin assessment.

    Recommended Citation

    Yonezawa, K., Haruna, M., & Kojima, R. (2020). Validity of infant face skin assessment by parents at home. Asian / Pacific Island Nursing Journal, 4(4).

    Sours: https://kahualike.manoa.hawaii.edu/apin/vol4/iss4/4/
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