Goldenrod wikipedia

Goldenrod wikipedia DEFAULT


Genus of plants

Solidago, commonly called goldenrods, is a genus of about 100[1] to 120[2] species of flowering plants in the aster family, Asteraceae. Most are herbaceous perennial species found in open areas such as meadows, prairies, and savannas. They are mostly native to North America, including Mexico; a few species are native to South America and Eurasia.[1] Some American species have also been introduced into Europe and other parts of the world.


Solidago species are perennials growing from woody caudices or rhizomes. Their stems range from decumbent (crawling) to ascending or erect, with a range of heights going from 5 cm (2.0 in) to over a meter. Most species are unbranched, but some do display branching in the upper part of the plant. Both leaves and stems vary from glabrous (hairless) to various forms of pubescence (strigose, strigillose, hispid, stipitate-glandular or villous). In some species, the basal leaves are shed before flowering. The leaf margins are most commonly entire, but often display heavier serration. Some leaves may display trinerved venation rather than the pinnate venation usual across Asteraceae.[1] The flower is also the state flower of Kentucky.

The flower heads are usually of the radiate type (typical daisy flower heads with distinct ray and disc florets) but sometimes discoid (with only disc florets of mixed, sterile, male and types). Only ray florets are female, others are male, hermaphroditic or entire sterile. Head involucres are campanulate to cylindric or attenuate. Floret corollas are usually yellow, but white in the ray florets of a few species (such as Solidago bicolor); they are typically hairless. Heads usually include between 2 and 35 disc florets, but in some species this may go up to 60. Filaments are inserted closer to the base of the corolla than its middle. Numerous heads are usually grouped in complex compound inflorescences where heads are arranged in multiple racemes, panicles, corymbs, or secund arrays (with florets all on the same side).[1]

Solidagocypselae are narrowly obconic to cylindrical in shape, and they are sometimes somewhat compressed. They have eight to 10 ribs usually and are hairless or moderately hispid. The pappus is very big with barbellate bristles.[1]

The many goldenrod species can be difficult to distinguish, due to their similar bright, golden-yellow flower heads that bloom in late summer. Propagation is by wind-disseminated seeds or by spreading underground rhizomes which can form colonies of vegetative clones of a single plant. They are mostly short-day plants and bloom in late summer and early fall. Some species produce abundant nectar when moisture is plentiful, or when the weather is warm and sunny.

The section Ptarmicoidei is sometimes treated as a separate genus Oligoneuron,[3] and is dropped by flat-topped to rounded corymbiform flowerheads.


Solidago is in the family Asteraceae (also known as Compositae), a diverse and widespread clade containing approximately 23,000 species and 12 tribes, which inhabit all continents except Antarctica. Within Asteraceae, Solidago is in the tribe Astereae and the subtribe Solidagininaeae.[4]

The genus Solidago is monophyletic as indicated by morphological characters[5] and molecular evidence.[6][7] All Solidago species are herbaceous perennials, growing from approximately 2-cm to 2.5-m tall. Yellow to white, pistillate ray flowers and yellow, perfect disc florets are characteristic of Solidago inflorescences, which have a wide range of shapes.[4] Molecular studies[8][6] using nuclear rDNA have hypothesized boundaries on the genus Solidago, but there have been difficulties in parsing out evolutionary relationships at the sub-genus scale, and defining which should be included and separated from Solidago.

Solidago and related taxa[edit]

Related Asteraceae genera such as Chrysoma, Euthamia, and Oreochrysum have been included within Solidago at one point or another,[9] but morphological evidence[10][9][11] has suggested otherwise. In a study comparing morphological characters of Solidago and related subgroups, the authors consider the subjectivity of classifying a genus, and how to define it within broader tendencies concerning the taxonomy of North American Asteraceae. Little to no differences were observed between Solidago and the subgroups in terms of karyotype. However, external morphological characters such as habit, or the general appearance of the plant and how a suite of traits contribute to its phenotype; pappus size; and the point of freeing of stamen filaments from the corolla tube, are useful classification schemes for Solidago, since they are applied to differentiating between Asteraceae taxa. While one school of Asteraceae taxonomy thought unites all taxa sharing similar floral head structure and subsequently ignores deviation from this morphology; while another places greater weight on these morphological deviations. The authors argue that the latter opinion should be applied. Since there is no theoretical foundation for relative taxonomic importance of traits, they assert that habit should be a central trait when defining taxa, and subsequently that all the subgroups considered in their study (Brachychaeta, Chrysoma, Euthamia, Oligoneuron, and Petradoria) should be segregated from Solidago.[12]

Results from a leaf anatomy study comparing differences in mesophyll, bundle sheath extensions, and midvein structure, among others in a suite of leaf traits,[9] are incongruent with those in an earlier study.[12] Based on the lack of bundle sheath extensions, it is suggested that Chrysoma, Euthamia, Gundlachia, and Petradoria should be distinct taxa and outside of Solidago.[9] However, Brachychaeta, Brintonia, Oligoneuron, Oreochrysum, and Aster should be considered as components of Solidago. To summarize, the relation of Brachychaeta and Oligoneuron to Solidago is inconsistent based on these results.[12][9] Both support the separation of Chrysoma, Euthamia, and Petradoria from Solidago. A study reviews the taxonomic position of Oligoneuron relative to Solidago, as based on taxonomic evidence, treats it as separate from Solidago,[10] similarly to Kapoor & Beaudry (1966). The first molecular phylogeny based on chloroplast DNA, treats Brachychaeta, Brintonia, Oligoneuron, and Oreochrysum as constituents of Solidago[6]. Using consensus trees from ITS data, another study found support for Oligoneuron as part of Solidago[13], and the findings of Zhang (1996). More recently, an analysis of combined ITS and ETS data provided additional support for the inclusion of Oligoneuron as part of Solidago.[8]

Until the 1980s, the genus Euthamia was largely considered to be a part of the Solidago due to morphological similarities between species in both genera, and a history of synonymy of Solidago lanceolata and Euthamia graminifolia.[11] As mentioned, the lack of bundle sheath extensions in Euthamia compared to Solidago,[9] and deviations in floral morphology[12] present evidence for separation of these taxa. A taxonomy of Euthamia as a genus was presented, providing a detailed description of distinguishing external morphological characters, such as fibrous-roots, sessile leaves, and mostly corymbiform inflorescences.[11]

Evolutionary relationships within Solidago[edit]

Chromosome counts and advances in molecular systematics have enabled greater understanding of evolutionary relationships within Solidago. At the time a taxonomy of Solidago was published[10], related taxa causing contention, such as Chrysoma, Euthamia, Oligoneuron, and Petradoria were excluded from this genus. The number of Solidago species has remained relatively stable, around 120 species, with approximately 80 in North America.[7][10] Due to monophyletic support for the New World taxa[13][5] and taxonomic difficulties with Old World taxa, the taxonomy provided in the 1990s[10] only includes North American taxa and thus treats Solidago as non-monophyletic. Existing molecular-based phylogenies provide monophyletic support for Solidago,[8][13][7][6] given its inclusion of Oligoneuron.

Chromosome counts have proven to be a valuable character in Solidago taxonomy and in elucidating the cytogeographic history of Solidago. Similar chromosome counts may indicate close evolutionary relationships while different chromosome numbers may suggest distant relationships through reproductive isolation. Chromosome counts have been studied extensively in North America;[14][15] all Solidago species have a base chromosome number of x=9, but the following ploidy levels have been observed: 2x, 3x, 4x, 6x, 8x, 10x, 12x, and 14x.

Though negligible differences in karyotype among Solidago and related genera were found,[12]Solidago taxa with multiple cytotypes are more common than those with one.[7] Although chromosome count is a useful metric for differentiating among Solidago taxa, it may be problematic due to the frequent variation in ploidy levels. Cytogeographic patterns in the Solidago gigantea complex, with tetraploids occurring in eastern North America and hexaploids in Oregon and Washington were observed.[16] Cytogeographic patterns are also observed in the Solidago canadensis complex; hexaploids within S. canadensis have been observed east of the Great Plains and are treated as Solidago altissima, and diploids and tetraploids occurring in the Great Plains are treated as Solidago gilvocanescens. The taxonomic status of Solidago ptarmicoidei created an extensive debate due to frequency hybridization of S. ptarmicoidei with members of the Ptarmicoidei section of Solidago.[1] It was asserted that S. ptarmicoides should be united with Solidago rather than the genus Aster due to external morphological features such as similar pappus length as well as the same chromosome base (x=9). Information about chromosome number is still a crucial part of current understanding and phylogenies of Soldiago.[7]

Use and cultivation[edit]

Young goldenrod leaves are edible.[17] Native Americans used the seeds of some species for food.[18]Herbal teas are sometimes made with goldenrod.[19]

Goldenrod often is inaccurately said to cause hay fever in humans.[20] The pollen causing this allergic reaction is produced mainly by ragweed (Ambrosia sp.), blooming at the same time as the goldenrod and pollinated by wind. Goldenrod pollen is too heavy and sticky to be blown far from the flowers, and is pollinated mainly by insects.[20] Frequent handling of goldenrod and other flowers, however, can cause allergic reactions, sometimes irritating enough to force florists to change occupation.[21] Goldenrods are attractive sources of nectar for bees, flies, wasps, and butterflies. Honey from goldenrods often is dark and strong because of admixtures of other nectars. However, when honey flow is strong, a light (often water-clear), spicy-tasting monofloral honey is produced. While the bees are ripening the honey produced from goldenrods, it has a rank odor and taste; the finished honey is much milder.

Goldenrods are, in some places, considered a sign of good luck or good fortune.[22] They are considered weeds by many in North America, but they are prized as garden plants in Europe, where British gardeners adopted goldenrod as a garden subject long before Americans did. Goldenrod began to gain some acceptance in American gardening (other than wildflower gardening) during the 1980s.

They have become invasive species in many other parts of the world, including China, Japan, Europe and Africa.[23][24]Solidago canadensis, which was introduced as a garden plant in Central Europe, has become common in the wild, and in Germany is considered an invasive species that displaces native vegetation from its natural habitat.

Goldenrod species are used as a food source by the larvae of many Lepidoptera species. The invading larva may induce the plant to form a bulbous tissue mass called a gall around it, upon which the larva then feeds. Various parasitoid wasps find these galls and lay eggs in the larvae, penetrating the bulb with their ovipositors. Woodpeckers are known to peck open the galls and eat the insects in the center.[25]

Cultivated species[edit]

Cultivated goldenrods include S. bicolor, S. caesia, S. canadensis, S. cutleri, S. riddellii,S. rigida, S. shortii, and S. virgaurea.[26]

A number of cultivars have been selected, including several of hybrid origin. A putative hybrid with aster, known as ×Solidaster is less unruly, with pale yellow flowers, equally suitable for dried arrangements. Molecular and other evidence points to ×Solidaster (at least the cultivar 'Lemore') being a hybrid of Solidago ptarmicoides and Solidago canadensis, the former now in Solidago, but likely the "aster" in question.[8]

The cultivars 'Goldenmosa'[27] and S. × luteus 'Lemore'[28] have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[29]

Industrial use[edit]

Inventor Thomas Edison experimented with goldenrod to produce rubber, which it contains naturally.[30] Edison created a fertilization and cultivation process to maximize the rubber content in each plant. His experiments produced a 12 ft-tall (3.7 m) plant that yielded as much as 12% rubber. The tires on the Model T given to him by his friend Henry Ford were made from goldenrod. Like George Washington Carver, Henry Ford was deeply interested in the regenerative properties of soil and the potential of alternative crops such as peanuts and soybeans to produce plastics, paint, fuel and other products. Ford had long believed that the world would eventually need a substitute for gasoline, and supported the production of ethanol (or grain alcohol) as an alternative fuel. In 1942, he would showcase a car with a lightweight plastic body made from soybeans. Ford and Carver began corresponding via letter in 1934, and their mutual admiration deepened after George Washington Carver made a visit to Michigan in 1937. As Douglas Brinkley writes in "Wheels for the World," his history of Ford, the automaker donated generously to the Tuskegee Institute, helping finance Carver's experiments, and Carver in turn spent a period of time helping to oversee crops at the Ford plantation in Ways, Georgia.

By the time World War II began, Ford had made repeated journeys to Tuskegee to convince George Washington Carver to come to Dearborn and help him develop a synthetic rubber to help compensate for wartime rubber shortages. Carver arrived on July 19, 1942, and set up a laboratory in an old water works building in Dearborn. He and Ford experimented with different crops, including sweet potatoes and dandelions, eventually devising a way to make the rubber substitute from goldenrod, a plant weed commercially viable.[31] Carver died in January 1943, Ford in April 1947, but the relationship between their two institutions continued to flourish: As recently as the late 1990s, Ford awarded grants of $4 million over two years to the George Washington Carver School at Tuskegee.

Extensive process development was conducted during World War II to commercialize goldenrod as a source of rubber.[32] The rubber is only contained in the leaves, not the stems or blooms. Typical rubber content of the leaves is 7%. The resulting rubber is of low molecular weight, resulting in an excessively tacky compound with poor tensile properties.

Traditional medicine[edit]

Solidago virgaurea is used in a traditional kidney tonic by practitioners of herbal medicine to counter inflammation and irritation caused by bacterial infections or kidney stones.[33][34] Goldenrod is also used in some formulas for cleansing of the kidney or bladder during a healing fast, in conjunction with potassium broth and specific juices.[34] Some Native American cultures traditionally chew the leaves to relieve sore throats, and the roots to relieve toothaches.[22]

Medicinal exploration[edit]

In various assessments by the European Medicines Agency with respect to Solidago virgaurea, non-clinical data shows diuretic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic and spasmolytic, antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer and immunomodulatory activity. However, as no single ingredient is responsible for these effects, the whole herbal preparation of Solidago inflorescences must be considered as the active ingredient.[35]

Cultural significance[edit]

The goldenrod is the state flower of the U.S. states of Kentucky (adopted 1926) and Nebraska (adopted 1895). Solidago altissima, tall goldenrod, was named the state wildflower of South Carolina in 2003.[36] The sweet goldenrod (Solidago odora) is the state herb of Delaware.[37] Goldenrod was the state flower of Alabama, but it was later rejected in favor of the camellia.[citation needed]

In the Midwestern United States, the blooming of goldenrods in August is a reminder that it will soon be time for children to go back to school after summer vacation.[38]


Goldenrod growing wild in Oklahoma.jpeg
Accepted species[39]
  • Solidago albopilosaE.L.Braun – whitehair goldenrod
  • Solidago altiplanitiesC.E.S. Taylor & R.J.Taylor – high plains goldenrod
  • Solidago altissimaL. – Canada goldenrod, late goldenrod
  • Solidago amplexicaulisTorr. & A.Gray
  • Solidago arenicolaB.R. Keener & Kral – southern racemose goldenrod
  • Solidago argentinensisLópez Laphitz, Rita María & Semple
  • Solidago argutaAit. – Atlantic goldenrod, forest goldenrod, toothed goldenrod, cut-leaf goldenrod
  • Solidago aureaSpreng.
  • Solidago auriculataShuttlw. ex Blake – eared goldenrod, clasping goldenrod
  • Solidago bartramianaFernald
  • Solidago bicolorL. – white goldenrod, silverrod
  • Solidago brachyphyllaChapman – Dixie goldenrod
  • Solidago brendiaeSemple
  • Solidago buckleyiTorr. & Gray – Buckley's goldenrod
  • Solidago caesiaL. – wreath goldenrod, axillary goldenrod, bluestem goldenrod, woodland goldenrod
  • Solidago calcicola(Fernald) Fernald
  • Solidago californicaNutt. - California goldenrod
  • Solidago canadensis L. – Canada goldenrod, Canadian goldenrod, common goldenrod
  • Solidago chilensisMeyen
  • Solidago compactaTurcz.
  • Solidago confinisA.Gray
  • Solidago coreana(Nakai) H.S.Pak
  • Solidago curtisiiTorr. & A.Gray – mountain decumbent goldenrod, Curtis' goldenrod
  • Solidago dahurica(Kitagawa) Kitagawa ex Juzepczuk
  • Solidago decurrensLoureiro
  • Solidago delicatulaSmall – elmleaf goldenrod, smooth elm-leaf goldenrod
  • Solidago drummondiiTorr. & A.Gray. – Drummond's goldenrod
  • Solidago durangensisG.L.Nesom
  • Solidago elongataNutt. – West Coast Canada goldenrod, Cascade Canada goldenrod
  • Solidago erectaNutt. – showy goldenrod, slender goldenrod
  • Solidago ericamerioidesG.L.Nesom
  • Solidago faucibusWieboldt – gorge goldenrod
  • Solidago fistulosaP.Mill. – pine-barren goldenrod
  • Solidago flexicaulisL. – zigzag goldenrod, broadleaf goldenrod
  • Solidago gattingeriChapman – Gattinger's goldenrod
  • Solidago giganteaAit. – giant goldenrod, tall goldenrod, early goldenrod, smooth goldenrod
  • Solidago glabraDesf.
  • Solidago glomerataMichx. – clustered goldenrod, skunk goldenrod
  • Solidago guiradonisA.Gray – Guirado's goldenrod
  • Solidago gypsophilaG.L.Nesom
  • Solidago hintoniorumG.L.Nesom
  • Solidago hispidaMuhl. ex Willd. – hairy goldenrod
  • Solidago houghtoniiTorr. & A.Gray ex A.Gray – Houghton's goldenrod
  • Solidago humilisMill.
  • Solidago inornataLunell
  • Solidago juliaeG.L.Nesom – Julia's goldenrod
  • Solidago junceaAit. – early goldenrod
  • Solidago kraliiSemple – Kral's goldenrod
  • Solidago kuhistanicaJuz.
  • Solidago kurilensisJuz.
  • Solidago lancifoliaTorr. & A.Gray – lance-leaf goldenrod
  • Solidago latissimifoliaP.Mill. – Elliott's goldenrod
  • Solidago leavenworthiiTorr. & A.Gray – Leavenworth's goldenrod
  • Solidago leiocarpaDC. in DC. &. A.DC. – Cutler's alpine goldenrod
  • Solidago lepidaDC. – western Canada goldenrod
  • Solidago ludoviciana(Gray) Small – Louisiana goldenrod
  • Solidago macrophyllaPursh – largeleaf goldenrod
  • Solidago macvaughiiG.L.Nesom
  • Solidago microglossaDC.
  • Solidago minutissima(Makino) Kitam.
  • Solidago missouriensisNutt. – Missouri goldenrod, prairie goldenrod, Tolmie's goldenrod
  • Solidago mollisBartl. – velvety goldenrod, soft goldenrod, woolly goldenrod
  • Solidago multiradiataAit. – Rocky Mountain goldenrod, alpine goldenrod, northern goldenrod, manyray goldenrod
  • Solidago nanaNutt. – baby goldenrod, dwarf goldenrod, gray goldenrod
  • Solidago nemoralisAit. – gray goldenrod, dyersweed goldenrod, old-field goldenrod
  • Solidago nitidaTorr. & A.Gray – shiny goldenrod
  • Solidago odoraAit. – anise-scented goldenrod, sweet goldenrod, fragrant goldenrod
  • Solidago ohioensisRiddell – Ohio goldenrod
  • Solidago orientalisG.L.Nesom
  • Solidago ouachitensisC.E.S.Taylor & R.J.Taylor – Ouachita Mountains goldenrod
  • Solidago ovataFriesner
  • Solidago pacificaJuzepczuk
  • Solidago paniculataDC.
  • Solidago patagonicaPhil.
  • Solidago patulaMuhl. ex Willd. – roundleaf goldenrod, roughleaf goldenrod
  • Solidago petiolarisAit. – downy ragged goldenrod
  • Solidago perornataLunell
  • Solidago pilosaMill.
  • Solidago pinetorumSmall – Small's goldenrod
  • Solidago plumosaSmall – plumed goldenrod, plumose goldenrod, Yadkin River goldenrod
  • Solidago pringleiFernald
  • Solidago proceraAiton
  • Solidago ptarmicoides(Torr. & A.Gray) B.Boivin – white flat-top goldenrod, upland white aster
  • Solidago puberulaNutt. – downy goldenrod
  • Solidago pulchraSmall – Carolina goldenrod
  • Solidago radulaNutt. – western rough goldenrod
  • Solidago riddelliiFrank ex Riddell – Riddell's goldenrod
  • Solidago rigidaL. – rigid goldenrod, stiff-leaf goldenrod
  • Solidago roanensisPorter – Roan Mountain goldenrod
  • Solidago rugosaP.Mill. – wrinkleleaf goldenrod, rough-stemmed goldenrod
  • Solidago rupestrisRaf. – rock goldenrod
  • Solidago satanicaLunell
  • Solidago sciaphilaSteele – shadowy goldenrod
  • Solidago sempervirensL. – seaside goldenrod, salt-marsh goldenrod
  • Solidago serotinaRetz.
  • Solidago shortiiTorr. & A.Gray – Short's goldenrod
  • Solidago simplexKunth : Mt. Albert goldenrod, sticky goldenrod
  • Solidago spathulataDC. – coast goldenrod
  • Solidago speciosaNutt. – showy goldenrod, noble goldenrod
  • Solidago spectabilis(D.C.Eat.) A.Gray – Nevada goldenrod, basin goldenrod
  • Solidago sphacelataRaf. – autumn goldenrod, false goldenrod
  • Solidago spithamaeaM.A.Curtis – Blue Ridge goldenrod, skunk goldenrod
  • Solidago spiraeifoliaFisch. ex Herder
  • Solidago squarrosaNutt. – stout goldenrod
  • Solidago strictaAit. – wand goldenrod, willow-leaf goldenrod
  • Solidago tardaMack. – Atlantic goldenrod
  • Solidago tortifoliaEll. – twistleaf goldenrod
  • Solidago uliginosaNutt. – bog goldenrod, fall goldenrod
  • Solidago ulmifoliaMuhl. ex Willd. – elmleaf goldenrod
  • Solidago velutinaDC. – threenerve goldenrod, velvety goldenrod
  • Solidago vernaM.A.Curtis – springflowering goldenrod
  • Solidago villosicarpaLeBlond – glandular wand goldenrod, hairy-seed goldenrod
  • Solidago virgaureaL. – European goldenrod
  • Solidago vossiiJ.S.Pringle & Laureto – Voss's goldenrod
  • Solidago wrightiiA.Gray – Wright's goldenrod
  • Solidago yokusaianaMakino
Natural hybrids
Formerly included[39]

Numerous species formerly considered members of Solidago are now regarded as better suited to other genera, including Brintonia, Duhaldea, Euthamia, Gundlachia, Inula, Jacobaea, Leptostelma, Olearia, Psiadia, Senecio, Sphagneticola, Symphyotrichum, Trixis, Xylothamia


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  38. ^Cunningham, D. (May 2001). "Goldenrod and Other Essences for School Transitions". Vibration Magazine: The Journal of Vibrational/Flower Essences.
  39. ^ abcdefghThe Plant List, search for Solidago
  40. ^ ab"Updated distribution of Solidago x niederederi in Poland". EPPO Reporting Service. European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO). 03–2018 (2018/065). 2018-12-11. Retrieved 2021-02-22.
  41. ^ ab"Solidago × niederederi". Invasive Species Compendium (ISC). CABI (Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International. 2019-11-19. Retrieved 2021-02-22.
  42. ^ abcSkokanová, Katarína; Šingliarová, Barbora; Španiel, Stanislav; Hodálová, Iva; Mereďa, Pavol (2020). "Tracking the expanding distribution of Solidago ×niederederi (Asteraceae) in Europe and first records from three countries within the Carpathian region". BioInvasions Records. Regional Euro-Asian Biological Invasions Centre Oy (REABIC). 9 (4): 670–684. doi:10.3391/bir.2020.9.4.02. ISSN 2242-1300.
  43. ^ abcPliszko, Artur; Łazarski, Grzegorz; Kalinowski, Paweł; Adamowski, Wojciech; Rutkowski, Lucjan; Puchałka, Radosław (2017-12-20). "An updated distribution of Solidago × niederederi (Asteraceae) in Poland". Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales. Walter de Gruyter GmbH. 66 (3): 253–258. doi:10.1515/cszma-2017-0026. ISSN 2336-3207.

External links[edit]


Goldenrod (disambiguation)

Goldenrod, various yellow flowering plants in the family Asteraceae. Usually the genus Solidago, but species in Chrysoma, Euthamia and Oreochrysum are also called goldenrods.

Goldenrod may also refer to:

  • Goldenrod (color), a color defined by the W3C for use in Scalable Vector Graphics as RGB (218, 165, 32)
  • Goldenrod Records, a record label
  • Goldenrod (car), the name of the 1965 land speed record car
  • Goldenrod (showboat), a National Historic Landmark in Missouri
  • Goldenrod, Florida, a community in the United States
  • Goldenrod City, a town in the second generation of the Pokémon franchise.
  • "Goldenrod", a song from the band Blondie's album, The Curse of Blondie
  • Goldenrod (film), a Canadian western film
  • SS Golden Rod, an American cargo ship in service 1928-35
  • Golden Rod Stakes, an annual American horse race

Topics referred to by the same term

  1. Kempharm fda
  2. Reborn painting tutorial
  3. Orac baseboard

Solidago gigantea

Species of plant in the family Asteraceae native to North America

Solidago gigantea
Solidago gigantea01.jpg

Conservation status

Scientific classificationedit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Solidago

S. gigantea

Binomial name
Solidago gigantea




    • Aster latissimifolius var. serotinus Kuntze
    • Doria dumerorum (Lunell) Lunell
    • Doria pitcheri (Nutt.) Lunell
    • Solidago cleliae DC.
    • Solidago deflexa Moench
    • Solidago dumetorum Lunell
    • Solidago fragrans A.Gray
    • Solidago gigantea var. leiophylla Fernald
    • Solidago gigantea var. pitcheri (Nutt.) Shinners
    • Solidago gigantea var. serotina (Kuntze) Cronquist
    • Solidago gigantea subsp. serotina (Kuntze) McNeill
    • Solidago gigantea var. shinnersii Beaudry
    • Solidago glabra Desf.
    • Solidago pitcheri Nutt.
    • Solidago sera J.F.Gmel.
    • Solidago serotina Aiton
    • Solidago serotina var. dumertorum (Aiton) A.Gray
    • Solidago serotina var. gigantea (Aiton) A.Gray
    • Solidago serotina f. huntingdonensis Beaudry
    • Solidago serotina var. minor Hook.
    • Solidago serotinoides Á.Löve & D.Löve
    • Solidago shinnersii (Beaudry) Beaudry
    • Solidago somesii Rydb.

Solidago gigantea is a North American plant species in the sunflower family.[3]: 211  Its common names include tall goldenrod[4] and giant goldenrod,[5] among others.

Goldenrod is the state flower of Kentucky,[6] and Solidago gigantea is the state flower of Nebraska.[7]


Solidago gigantea is a perennial herb that reaches heights of up to 2 m (6.6 ft) tall, sometimes spreading by means of underground rhizomes. It often grows in clumps with no leaves at the base but numerous leaves on the stem. At the top, each stem produces a sizable array of many small flower heads, sometimes several hundred. Each head is yellow, containing both disc florets and ray florets.[4]


Solidago gigantea is found in a wide variety of natural habitats, although it is restricted to areas with at least seasonally moist soils.[4][8]


It is a widespread species known from most of non-arctic North America east of the Rocky Mountains. It has been reported from every state and province from Alberta to Nova Scotia to Florida to Texas, and also from the state of Nuevo León in northeastern Mexico.[9][10]

Environmental impact[edit]

Solidago gigantea is highly invasive throughout Europe and Asia.[11] In its non-native range, it exerts a negative impact on native communities by decreasing species richness and diversity, apparently due to its intense competitive effects,[12] rapid growth,[13] or polyploidization.[14] In the non-native European range, several management option are applied, such as periodical flooding, mowing, mulching, grazing, or herbicide to reduce the negative impact of the species on native biodiversity.[15]


  1. ^NatureServe (8 January 2021). "Solidago gigantea – Smooth Goldenrod". NatureServe Explorer ( Arlington, Virginia: NatureServe. Retrieved 6 February 2021.
  2. ^POWO (2019). "Solidago gigantea Aiton". Plants of the World Online ( Kew, London: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 6 February 2021.
  3. ^Aiton, W. (1789). Hortus Kewensis; or, a catalogue of the plants cultivated in the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew (in Latin). 3. London: George Nicol. Retrieved 6 February 2021 – via Biodiversity Heritage Library.
  4. ^ abcSemple, J.C.; Cook, R.E. (2006). "Solidago gigantea". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). 20. New York and Oxford. Retrieved 8 November 2014 – via, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  5. ^"Solidago gigantea". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 18 November 2015.
  6. ^Kentucky State Legislature. "Kentucky Revised Statutes: TITLE I SOVEREIGNTY AND JURISDICTION OF THE COMMONWEALTH - CHAPTER 2 CITIZENSHIP, EMBLEMS, HOLIDAYS, AND TIME - 2.090 State flower (PDF)". Kentucky General Assembly ( Retrieved 6 February 2021.
  7. ^Nebraska Library Commission. "Nebraska State Symbols". NebraskAccess ( Retrieved 6 February 2021.
  8. ^Hilty, John (2016). "Giant Goldenrod - Solidago gigantea". Illinois Wildflowers. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  9. ^"Solidago gigantea". County-level distribution map from the North American Plant Atlas (NAPA). Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2014. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
  10. ^"Photo of herbarium specimen collected in Nuevo León, Mexico". Tropicos ( Retrieved 15 June 2015.
  11. ^Weber, E.; Jakobs, G. (2 May 2005). "Biological flora of central Europe: Solidago gigantea Aiton". Flora - Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 200 (2): 109–118. doi:10.1016/j.flora.2004.09.001. ISSN 0367-2530. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  12. ^Pal, R.W.; Chen, S.; Nagy, D.U.; Callaway, R.M. (2015). "Impacts of Solidago gigantea on other species at home and away". Biological Invasions. New York: Springer. 17 (11): 3317–3325. doi:10.1007/s10530-015-0955-7. S2CID 3035546. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  13. ^Jakobs, G.; Weber, E.; Edwards, P.J. (2004). "Introduced plants of the invasive Solidago gigantea (Asteraceae) are larger and grow denser than conspecifics in the native range". Diversity and Distributions. Diversity and Distribution. 10: 11–19. doi:10.1111/j.1472-4642.2004.00052.x. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  14. ^Nagy, D.U.; Stranczinger, S.; Godi, A.; Weisz, A.; Rosche, C.; Suda, J.; Mariano, M.; Pal, R.W. (April 2018). "Does higher ploidy level increase the risk of invasion? A case study with two geo-cytotypes of Solidago gigantea Aiton (Asteraceae)". Journal of Plant Ecology. 11 (2): 317–327. doi:10.1093/jpe/rtx005. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  15. ^Nagy, D.U.; Rauschert, E.S.J.; Henn, T.; Cianfaglione, K.; Stranczinger, S.; Pal, R.W. (June 2020). "The more we do, the less we gain? Balancing effort and efficacy in managing the Solidago gigantea invasion". Weed Research. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 60 (3): 232–240. doi:10.1111/wre.12417. ISSN 1365-3180. Retrieved 14 May 2020.

External links[edit]

State flowers of the United States

  • ALCamellia, Oak-leaf hydrangeaWF
  • AKForget-me-not
  • AZSaguaro cactus blossom
  • ARApple blossom
  • CACalifornia poppy
  • CORocky Mountain columbine
  • CTMountain laurel, Mirabilis jalapaCH
  • DEPeach blossom
  • FLOrange blossom, TickseedWF
  • GAAzaleaWF, Cherokee roseFE
  • HIHawaiian hibiscus
  • IDSyringa, mock orange
  • ILViolet, Milkweed
  • INPeony
  • IAWild prairie rose
  • KSSunflower
  • KYGoldenrod
  • LAMagnolia, Louisiana irisWF
  • MEWhite pine cone and tassel
  • MDBlack-eyed susan
  • MAMayflower
  • MIApple blossom, Dwarf lake irisWF
  • MNPink and white lady's slipper
  • MSMagnolia, TickseedWF
  • MOHawthorn
  • MTBitterroot
  • NEGoldenrod
  • NVSagebrush
  • NHPurple lilac, Pink lady's slipperWF
  • NJViolet
  • NMYucca flower
  • NYRose
  • NCFlowering dogwood, Carolina lilyWF
  • NDWild prairie rose
  • OHScarlet carnation, Large white trilliumWF
  • OKOklahoma rose, Indian blanketWF, MistletoeFE
  • OROregon grape
  • PAMountain laurel, Penngift crown vetchBC
  • RIViolet
  • SCYellow jessamine, GoldenrodWF
  • SDPasque flower
  • TNIris, Purple passionflowerWF, Tennessee coneflowerWF
  • TXBluebonnet sp.
  • UTSego lily
  • VTRed clover
  • VAAmerican dogwood
  • WACoast rhododendron
  • WVRhododendron
  • WIWood violet
  • WYIndian paintbrush
  • ASPaogo (Ulafala)
  • GUBougainvillea spectabilis
  • MPFlores mayo
  • PRMaga
  • VIYellow elder

Italics: state wildflower WF, state children's flower CH, state floral emblem FE, beautification and conservation BC


Solidago sempervirens

Species of aquatic plant

Solidago sempervirens, the seaside goldenrod[3] or salt-marsh goldenrod,[4] is a plant species in the genus Solidago of the family Asteraceae. It is native to eastern North America and parts of the Caribbean. It is an introduced species in the Great Lakes region.[5] Similar plants found in the Azores (now Solidago azorica) are thought have evolved from a natural introduction of this species.[6][7]


Solidago sempervirens is a succulent, herbaceous perennial that reaches heights of 4–6 feet (120–180 cm). It is unusual in the genus in having toothless, hair-less leaves, thicker than those of most other Solidago species. Flower heads are found in a large paniculiforminflorescence at the top of the plant, often with branches that bend backwards towards the base. This species blooms in late summer and well into the fall, later in the season than most of its relatives. Its fruits are wind-dispersed achenes. They are yellow often, and have sprouts of buds at the end of the short branches.[8]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

In nature, S. sempervirens is primarily a plant of the seashore, and is accordingly found along coasts of the Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean, and the Gulf of Mexico from Central America north as far as Newfoundland. It grows on sand dunes, salt marshes, and the banks of estuaries. It is naturally found inland along the St. Lawrence Seaway and the Great Lakes, and has expanded its range further inland along roadsides over the past 30 years. It is highly tolerant of both saline soils and salt spray, and is usually found growing on coastal dunes and in salt marshes.

  • Solidago sempervirens var. mexicana(L.) Fernald - from Massachusetts south to Central America and the West Indies
  • Solidago sempervirens var. sempervirens - from Newfoundland south to Virginia; introduced in Great Lakes region


Solidago sempervirens is a seashore plant with a high salinity tolerance. It is occasionally cultivated as an ornamental, preferring sunny locations with sandy soil, with little competition from other species.


External links[edit]


Wikipedia goldenrod

Solidago rugosa

Species of flowering plant

Solidago rugosa, commonly called the wrinkleleaf goldenrod[2] or rough-stemmed goldenrod,[3] is a species of flowering plant in the sunflower family (Asteraceae). It is native to North America, where it is widespread across eastern and central Canada (from Newfoundland to Ontario) and the eastern and central United States (Maine west as far as Wisconsin and Iowa, south to Florida and Texas).[4] It is usually found in wet to mesic habitats.[5]


Solidago rugosa is a rough-leaved herbaceousperennial up to 2 m (6.6 ft) tall. Its leaves are primarily cauline. One plant can produce as many as 50 stems, each with 50–1500 yellow flower heads.[5] It flowers in late summer through fall.[6] It can be distinguished from the similar-looking Solidago ulmifolia by the presence of creeping rhizomes, and by its more abrupt leaf bases.[7]


Solidago rugosa is a variable plant throughout its range. Five varieties are currently recognized, although their relationships are complex and poorly understood.[7] The varieties are:[5][6]

  • Solidago rugosa var. aspera(Aiton) Fernald - common throughout the east
  • Solidago rugosa var. celtidifolia(Small) Fernald - coastal plain from Texas to Virginia
  • Solidago rugosa var. cronquistianaSemple - high elevations in Georgia, Tennessee, North Carolina
  • Solidago rugosa var. rugosa - common, generally more northern and Appalachian
  • Solidago rugosa var. sphagnophilaC. Graves - cedar swamps from Nova Scotia to coastal Virginia


Solidago rugosa is common throughout most of its range, and is not tracked at the species level in any state or province it is native to.[9] However, in Connecticut the variety sphagnophila is listed as a special concern and believed to be extirpated from the state.[10]


Solidago rugosa is grown as an ornamental garden plant. The cultivar ‘Fireworks’ has gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit.[11]

Native American ethnobotany[edit]

The Iroquois use the whole plant for biliousness and as liver medicine, and take a decoction of flowers and leaves for dizziness, weakness or sunstroke.[12]


  1. ^The Plant List, Solidago rugosa Mill.
  2. ^"Solidago rugosa". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
  3. ^BSBI List 2007(xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original(xls) on 2015-06-26. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
  4. ^"Solidago rugosa". County-level distribution map from the North American Plant Atlas (NAPA). Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2014. Retrieved 23 June 2018.
  5. ^ abcFlora of North America, Solidago rugosa Miller, 1768. Rough-stemmed or wrinkle-leaf goldenrod, verge d’or rugueuse
  6. ^ abAlan Weakley (2015). "Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States".
  7. ^ abYatskievych, George (2006). Flora of Missouri, Volume 2. Missouri Botanical Garden Press. p. 274.
  8. ^USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. Illustrated flora of the northern states and Canada. Vol. 3: 390.
  9. ^Solidago rugosa NatureServe
  10. ^"Connecticut's Endangered, Threatened and Special Concern Species 2015". State of Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection Bureau of Natural Resources. Retrieved 31 December 2017.(Note: This list is newer than the one used by and is more up-to-date.)
  11. ^"RHS Plantfinder - Solidago rugossa 'Fireworks'". Retrieved 12 November 2018.
  12. ^Herrick, James William, 1977, Iroquois Medical Botany, State University of New York, Albany, PhD Thesis, page 461

External links[edit]

Virtual BioBlitz: The Golden Rules of Goldenrods (Goldenrod Identification)


For other uses, see Goldenrod (disambiguation).

Goldenrod is a common name for many species of flowering plants in the sunflower family, Asteraceae, commonly in reference to the genus Solidago.

Several genera, such as Euthamia, were formerly included in a broader concept of the genus Solidago. Some authors treat Oligoneuron, the flat-topped goldenrods, as a separate genus than Solidago,[1] while others consider it a section: Solidago sect. Ptarmicoidei.[2]

Plants known as goldenrods include:

  • Bigelowia spp., rayless goldenrods, 2 species native to the southeastern United States[3][1]
  • Cuniculotinus gramineus, Panamint rock goldenrod
  • Euthamia spp., flat-topped goldenrods or grass-leaved goldenrods, 5 species native to North America[1][4]
  • Gundlachia triantha, Trans-Pecos desert goldenrod
  • Lorandersonia microcephala, small-headed heath goldenrod
  • Medranoa palmeri, Texas desert goldenrod
  • Petradoria pumila, rock goldenrod
  • Solidago spp., goldenrods, around 120 species native to the Americas, northern Africa, Europe, Asia[5]


  1. ^ abcWeakley, Alan S. (2020), Flora of the Southeastern United States, University of North Carolina Herbarium, North Carolina Botanical Garden, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
  2. ^Semple, J. C.; Cook, R. E. "Solidago Linnaeus sect. Ptarmicoidei (House) Semple & Gandhi". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). New York and Oxford. Retrieved 8 January 2020 – via, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  3. ^"Bigelowia DC". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  4. ^"Euthamia (Nutt.) Cass". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  5. ^"Solidago L."Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 13 November 2020.

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Goldenrods are any of the about 150 species of weedyherbs that make up the genusSolidago. Handling the goldenrod many times can make some people have allergies. Because of this, some florists change their jobs.[1] Parts of goldenrods are eaten by humans.[2] They are also eaten by many species of Lepidoptera.

Species[change | change source]

Giant Goldenrod (Solidago gigantea)

References[change | change source]

  1. De, Jong, Nw; Vermeulen, Am; Gerth, Van, Wijk, R; De, Groot, H (Feb 1998), "Occupational allergy caused by flowers", Allergy, 53 (2): 204–9, ISSN 0105-4538, PMID 9534922CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. ↑Edibility of Goldenrod Retrieved on March 12, 2010

Other websites[change | change source]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Solidago.

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