Kratom ethnobotanicals

Kratom ethnobotanicals DEFAULT

Ethnobotanicals and Functional Foods

Kratom

The natural product kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) has been used for hundreds of years in Southeast Asia, primarily brewed in teas. In Malaysia and Thailand, there is a long history of kratom use as a social custom, in laborers to invigorate work, and in individuals addicted to opioids as a self-remedy for their dependence and withdrawal in lieu of prescription or illicit opioid use. The use of kratom-related products around the world, including the US, is rapidly expanding, with users reporting the same benefits as those described in Southeast Asia. Kratom contains dozens of alkaloids, and the McCurdy group is actively isolating individual alkaloids while the McMahon group is engaged in exploring their pharmacology in whole animals. In addition to gaining a better understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms behind the biological activity of the alkaloids contained in this natural product, the team is actively developing synthetic analogs of kratom alkaloids as potential medicines for the treatment of pain, psychiatric conditions including depression, and drug dependence. Additionally, Grundmann’s group is conducting epidemiological research on the patterns of Kratom use, its potential health impact, and risk of dependence. Grundman’s scientific collaborations further explore the effects of Kratom in both traditional Kratom users in Southeast Asia and in Western countries. Given the diverse range of pharmacological effects of Kratom extracts, the observed health implications can provide important insights into its current and future applications as a dietary supplement and potential medicine.

Dr. Grundmann is also broadly interested in natural products and their clinical applications. Together with various national and international collaborators he conducts pre-clinical and clinical experiments to further our understanding of complex plant extracts and their potential benefits in a range of disorders.

  • Prozialeck WC, Avery BA, Boyer EW, Grundmann O, Henningfield JE, Kruegel AC, McMahon LR, McCurdy CR, Swogger MT, Veltri CA, Singh D. Kratom policy: The challenge of balancing therapeutic potential with public safety. Int J Drug Policy. 2019, 70, 70-77.
  • Hiranita T, Leon F, Felix JS, Restrepo LF, Reeves ME, Pennington AE, Obeng S, Avery BA, McCurdy CR, McMahon LR, Wilkerson JL. The effects of mitragynine and morphine on schedule-controlled responding and antinociception in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2019 [Epub ahead of print]
  • Sharma A, Kamble SH, León F, Chear NJ, King TI, Berthold EC, Ramanathan S, McCurdy CR, Avery BA. Simultaneous quantification of ten key Kratom alkaloids in Mitragyna speciosa leaf extracts and commercial products by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Drug Test Anal. 2019 [Epub ahead of print]

Kava

Kava is derived from Piper methysticum, a shrub that grows in the South Pacific islands. It is traditionally prepared as an aqueous suspension from the roots of this shrub and is consumed as a daily beverage to help people relax, socialize, and improve sleep quality. It has also been marketed as a dietary supplement on the US market for decades to support calm and relaxation. Kava was once used to treat mild and moderate anxiety in Europe in the 1990s. It was banned for clinical use in Europe from 2001 – 2014 because of concerns about potential hepatotoxicity. Limited epidemiological data suggest that kava consumption may reduce cancer risk. Various biological activities have also been reported for kava in vitro and in vivo.

Attracted by these interesting biological activities and potential risks, the Xing group have been investigating kava from multiple directions with the integrations of pharmacognosy, medicinal chemistry, molecular and cellular biology, various animal models, bioanalytical chemistry, and clinical trials. Over the years, the group have demonstrated its potential to reduce cancer risk in several animal models, particularly against tobacco carcinogen NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis with unprecedented efficacy. We have identified dihydromethysticin, a natural kavalactone, as the lung cancer chemopreventive agent with a unique mechanism of action. Surrogate biomarkers have been identified from the in vivo studies, which facilitate its clinical translation. At the same time, extensive structure-activity relationship is ongoing to potentially identify more potent lead candidates and to help identify the up-stream cellular target(s). The group have also identified some lipophilic ingredients that synergize with the hepatotoxicity of acetaminophen in vivo, which may account for kava’s hepatotoxic risk. Guided by some of these results, a number of clinical trials have been implemented or planned. The ultimate goal is to provide a better understanding of this interesting botanical product and guide its best use in humans, including its benefit(s), risk(s), the responsible ingredient(s), the mechanisms of action, and the quality control and quality assurance of proper product(s) for human use.

  • Triolet J, Shaik AA, Gallaher DD, O’Sullivan MG, Xing C. Reduction in colon cancer risk by consumption of kava or kava fractions in carcinogen-treated rats. Nutrition and cancer. 2012, 64(6), 838-846.
  • Narayanapillai SC, Leitzman P, O’Sullivan MG, Xing C. Flavokawains A and B in kava, not dihydromethysticin, potentiate acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in C57BL/6 mice. Chemical research in toxicology. 2014, 27(10), 1871-1876.

Seaweed

Marine algae (seaweeds) have been used as a food source and medicine for centuries. This includes green algae (Chlorophyta), red algae (Rhodophyta), and brown algae (Ochrophyta). Seaweed is a major part of the diet in parts of Asia. Numerous beneficial properties of algal extracts and constituents have been reported, however, usually only in a descriptive manner, without pinpointing specific bioactive components or invoking specific molecular pathways. For example, green algae of the genus Ulva also known as sea lettuce are among the most commonly consumed seaweeds. They have been associated with multiple beneficial effects, such as anti-inflammatory, protective and detoxifying activity, that are helpful in many diseases and conditions. The majority of these effects are related to antioxidant activity. The Luesch group has embarked on a quest to back up the anecdotal evidence revolving around dietary seaweeds and found that the antioxidant activity of several seaweed extracts is associated not with direct radical scavenging, but with a more sustained mechanism involving activation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes through regulating the activation of the antioxidant response element (ARE) at the transcriptional level. The promise exhibited by the initial screening campaigns of seaweed extract libraries has prompted more in-depth chemical and biological evaluation of selected species. The work has led to the discovery of several small molecules with Nrf2-dependent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. The ultimate goal is to characterize bioactive components of seaweeds on the molecular and cellular levels and to identify the relevance of these changes caused by the seaweed ingestion that may drive beneficial functional responses.

  • Ratnayake R, Liu Y, Paul VJ, Luesch H. Cultivated sea lettuce is a multiorgan protector from oxidative and inflammatory stress by enhancing the endogenous antioxidant defense system. Cancer Prev Res. 2013, 6(9), 989-999.
  • Wang R, Paul VJ, Luesch H. Seaweed extracts and unsaturated fatty acid constituents from the green alga Ulva lactuca as activators of the cytoprotective Nrf2-ARE pathway. Free Radic Biol Med. 2013, 57, 141-153.
Sours: https://cnpd3.pharmacy.ufl.edu/ethnobotanicals-and-functional-foods/

At Kratora, we’re always talking about ethnobotanicals; but what does the word “ethnobotanicals” mean, exactly? And what makes these plants any different to other botanicals like lavender and rosemary?

What is Ethnobotany?

To really appreciate a plant and benefit from it, you need to know where it comes from and how it was used traditionally. After centuries and even millennia of trial and error to work out which plants can be useful for human health, it makes sense to listen to what the locals have to say!

“Ethnobotany,” according to the Merriam Webster dictionary, is “the plant lore of indigenous cultures” and “the systematic study of such lore.” A “botanical” is “a substance obtained or derived from a plant,” including extracts used for skin and hair products and medicinal preparations.

In other words, ethnobotany is the study of how indigenous people around the world use plants, and ethnobotanicals are the plants traditionally used for health and beauty. Sometimes, the traditional uses of a plant might be connected to a myth or legend, and at other times have been passed down within a family or herbalist to herbalist.

What Ethnobotany is in Relation to Science

While common botanicals like peppermint and oregano have been studied extensively in clinical trials, highly localized plants like kratom and kanna have not yet been afforded this luxury, and the best we can do is to describe their historical and local uses. However, if you think about it, indigenous communities around the world have survived and thrived for thousands of years without modern medicine, so they must be doing something right!

Purple flower heads in a meadow

Discover the Ethnobotanicals in our Premium Collection

Here at Kratora, we were so interested in learning more about what ethnobotany is that we decided to expand our kratom business and start selling other traditional plants. In our collection of kratom alternatives, we offer ethnobotanicals from Asia, Africa, and South America. Each plant has a fascinating story and cultural context behind it that needs to be fully understood in order to enjoy the benefits and avoid unwanted side-effects.

Ethnobotanicals from Asia

Kratom(Mitragyna Speciosa)

A native Southeast Asian rainforest tree in the coffee bean family, kratom was traditionally chewed by manual laborers to help with the fatigue and physical pain experienced during long days of work. As kratom stimulates the opioid receptors in the body, the leaves have also been used in rural parts of Southeast Asia for opiate withdrawal.

In modern times, kratom has become a popular remedy around the world for chronic pain and fatigue.

Mitragyna Hirsuta

Another of our Southeast Asian ethnobotanicals, Mitragyna hirsuta (related to kratom or Mitragyna speciosa) is found in the tropics and subtropics of Asia. The leaves are traditionally used for their stimulating and relaxing effects, and also have antimalarial and analgesic properties.

This herb is currently gaining popularity as a kratom substitute and kratom potentiator and is often legal in countries and states where kratom is not.

Sakae Naa(Combretum Quadrangulare)

Sakae naa is a tree that grows in the wild along river banks in Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar (Burma), and Thailand. It is used as a kratom substitute in Thailand where kratom and some other psychoactive ethnobotanicals are illegal.

Traditionally, the seeds, roots, and leaves were used for treating parasitic worms, and the roots and wood were used for dealing with sexually-transmitted diseases and infections. Research has shown that the seeds display antibacterial properties.

Ethnobotanicals from Africa

Kanna(Sceletium Tortuosum)

One of the most popular ethnobotanicals in South Africa is the kanna plant. Kanna is a succulent with small white flowers that grows natively in this region. It is traditionally chewed for stress, depression, pain, and to alleviate hunger.

Nowadays, locals can buy commercial kanna preparations, including powders, gel caps, teas, and tinctures. Some choose to snuff or smoke the powder. Fermenting and/or crushing the plant helps to reduce the oxalic acid content, making it safer to ingest.

Akuamma(Picralima Nitida)

When looking for ethnobotanicals in other parts of Africa, we can find a tree known as akuamma in the West African nations of Ghana, Côte d’Ivoire, Congo, Zaire, and Cameroon. What is the use of akuamma in ethnobotany? In this case, it is the seeds of the tree that are prized for their medicinal uses. Locals traditionally use the seeds for pain relief and opiate withdrawal symptoms, as well as for malaria and diarrhea. It has been discovered that these seeds can also help with high blood pressure.

More recently, akuamma has been marketed as a milder and longer-lasting substitute for kratom in areas where kratom is illegal, unavailable, or very expensive.

Blue Lotus(Nymphaea Caerulea)

Blue Lotus has been revered since ancient times by various cultures, including the Egyptians and Mayans. If you can imagine ethnobotanicals being used at ancient religious parties and orgies, blue lotus was the most famous. Members of elite Egyptian society would gather and drink wine infused with blue lotus extract and then have a wild time—as documented on papyrus, murals, and temples around Egypt.

Aside from its aphrodisiac properties, blue lotus is also used to relieve discomfort and to experience a sense of euphoria.

 

Ethnobotanicals from South America

Muira Puama(Ptychopetalum Olacoides)

For our final ethnobotanical plant, we’ll head to the Amazon rainforest in South America to take a look at the Muira puama tree. The Amazon has been a rich source of many ethnobotanicals including acai and cacao.

Traditionally, the roots and bark of the Brazilian Muira puama tree have been used as a natural aphrodisiac as well as a tonic for neuromuscular problems. For paralysis, the roots are made into a decoction and added to baths and massages. To help with sexual dysfunction, a tea is prepared using the roots and bark. This tea is also said to carry additional benefits for rheumatism, cardiac health, and gastrointestinal weakness. It really is a great all-rounder!

Complete Your World Tour at Kratora

Now that you know a bit more about ethnobotanicals, you might ask “What is the potential of ethnobotany today?” Even though these plants have not been studied extensively in Western clinical trials, their use by local people for centuries shows that they could have great potential in modern times. Explore the ethnobotanicals listed in this blog and others at Kratora today, and receive same-day shipping on orders submitted before 3 PM EST Monday through Friday and 1 PM EST on Saturdays (excluding holidays).

Please note that none of the products sold on our website are intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease or medical condition. Additionally, the US FDA has not approved kratom to be sold for human consumption, sold for external use only.

Want to learn more about kratom quality and value? Start here:
Why Buying Cheap Kratom Can Be Dangerous

Sours: https://buykratom.us/what-are-ethnobotanicals/
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Many times, we are reading an article about substances like Kratom or Akuamma, and there is a term ‘ethnobotanicals’ that is consistently present. Still, we don’t know the exact meaning and context of this term. Ethnobotanicals is a term that we use for all the herbs and plants that we consume to achieve health benefits, energy, and vigor, to strengthen our body systems and enhance our mood and cognition.

Let’s have a look in detail as to what ethnobotanicals are and why people use them.

What exactly are ethnobotanicals?

From ancient times, we have had our natural cures and remedies. Back then, when there was no technology, no antibiotics, and no medicine, people relied on natural herbs and plants for health remedies.

Every culture, every civilization, had its unique treatments. And these traditional remedies are called ethnobotanicals in today’s world.

Although the concept of Ethnobotany wasn’t prevalent in the previous century or two, it has gained immense popularity because people are shifting to traditional medicine as they have fewer side effects and more benefits. And, the term ethnobotany and ethnobotanicals have been coined only recently.

Today, scientists are amazed at the vast array of plants and their effects on health and how they have healing properties. Every day we come across new studies on these ethnobotanicals, and we are genuinely astounded at their impact on the human body.

On our website, we tend to promote many ethnobotanicals, and although we may not mention this word always, what we bring to you in the form of Kratom pills, Akuamma seeds, CBD tincture, Kava Kava all are ethnobotanicals.

Why do people use ethnobotanicals?

Considering why people used ethnobotanicals in old times, we touch a very historical aspect of the primitive tribes. See all they had at their disposal was the vegetation around them. They not only had it as a food source but these plants, herbs, and shrubs, and cultural value for them. They believed in plant symbolism, used to explore them and get maximum advantage of their floral surroundings. And since they had nothing else to utilize for gaining energy and strength, this was their mechanism of coping up with ailments.

Why do people still use ethnobotanical is an interesting question. With access to medicine, healthcare facilities, hi-tech hospital setups, emerging remedies for cancer, viral infections such as HIV and COVID-19, why are people still into ethnobotanicals?

Why is traditional medicine emerging again?

Let’s talk about facts here. Not everyone has access to the best medical and healthcare and no one can afford million-dollar therapies. Not everyone lives in urban setups where they can have knowledge and access to medicines, doctors, and healthcare workers. Research says that the use of ethnobotany is prevalent in those areas of the world, which are underprivileged and do not have access to proper hospitals.

There the locals rely on ethnobotanicals to deal with minor ailments like cold, cough, fever, upset stomach, headache, etc.

Some ethnobotanicals are cheaper than synthetic medicines, so people prefer them. Most people prefer traditional medicine over modern medicine because of this common belief that traditional medicine has lesser side effects.

Key Facts & Effects of Using Ethnobotanicals?

  • Ethnobotanicals are safe: They have been used for centuries and tested by many tribes and cultures across the world. When there was no medicine, it was these herbs that people relied on. These are time tested herbs and are safe without any dangerous side effects profile.
  • They are natural: Ethnobotanicals contain no synthetic material; they are natural, so you don’t need to be scared of anything. This also brings you closer to nature and makes you want to explore more of nature. It increases your spirituality.
  • Minimal side effects: These natural substances have minimal side effects. They don’t cause any collateral damage when taken. For example, when you take chemotherapy for cancer, you are also damaging the healthy cells. In the case of antibiotics, they not only attack the harmful bacteria but also kill the beneficial bacteria present in the gut primarily, resulting in reduced digestion and peristalsis.
  • Pain alleviation: Ethnobotanicals is a significant source of pain killers. They have an essential role in alleviating pain without causing stomach or duodenal ulcers. They do not cause severe adverse side effects.
  • Mood boosters: Some of the ethnobotanicals are known for their mood-elevating properties. While you are taking them for discomfort, they also reduce your uneasiness and boost your mood. This effect usually comes with expensive synthetic medicine.
  • Inexpensive: Most of the common types of ethnobotanicals are readily available, are cheap, and can even be cultivated in your back lawn.

Does the FDA approve of Ethnobotanicals?

The only drawback that comes with ethnobotanicals is that they are always in controversy. Just because of minimal research, the FDA rejects many ethnobotanicals as a standard treatment regimen for various ailments. An example of this controversy is Kratom, which the DEA and FDA repeatedly attacked due to lack of research.

It is up to us how we want to portray these herbs to the rest of the world. If we consume them responsibly, we will not experience any adverse effects.

Types of ethnobotanicals present across the world

  • Kratom is a crucial stimulant and mood booster that comes from Southeast Asia. It is available in multiple forms in our online store. It comes in three different types.
  • Mitragyna Hirsuta is another South Asia ethnobotanical that has a relaxing and analgesic effect. It is also known to be a Kratom substitute.
  • The seeds of Sakae Naa or Comretum Quadrangulare exhibit anti-parasitic and antibacterial properties. It is mainly found in Thailand, where other substances like Kratom are illegal.
  • Akuamma is grown in many regions of Africa. The seeds of this plant are used in the management of discomfort, for the relief of diarrhea, treatment of malaria, and opioid withdrawal symptoms.
  • Kanna is a plant that is native to South Africa. It helps with the management of discomfort and reduces uneasiness.
  • Kava or Piper Methysticum contains an active component known as Kavalactones that is responsible for elevating mood.

Conclusion

There are many ethnobotanicals out there, and not every vendor that sells these herbs and plants is reliable. You have to review every brand before making any purchase thoroughly. Understand that if you have any underlying medical condition, you should first talk to your doctor before taking. They are safe, but we want you to consume them responsibly.

Kate Freeman

Kate Freeman is the wellpreneur behind Ayuni Organic, a brand focused on spreading the goodness of Mitragyna Speciosa. Kate supports scientific research on this natural tree "Kratom" and believes that this herb can help millions of people to live a healthier life. She works with many kratom vendors to help extend their brand influence online. In her spare time, she enjoys gardening, cooking, trying new recipes, and locating reliable stores selling kratom on sale.

Latest posts by Kate Freeman (see all)

Sours: https://supernaturalbotanical.com/what-are-ethnobotanicals/
KRATOM-ETHICAL-ETHNOBOTANICALS unbox

Summary

Company Announcement Date:
FDA Publish Date:
Product Type:
Dietary Supplements
Drugs
Nutritional Supplement
Generic Drugs
Reason for Announcement:

Recall Reason Description

Salmonella

Company Name:
Gaia Ethnobotanical, LLC
Brand Name:

Brand Name(s)

Product Description:

Product Description


Company Announcement

Gaia Ethnobotanical, LLC., is voluntarily recalling all kratom (mitragyna speciosa) powder products, with Lot No.: 0102031800 it manufactured, processed, packed, and/or held, between March 18, 2018 to March 30, 2018 to the consumer level. The products have been found by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) via sample testing and finding to have salmonella contamination. In lieu of such FDA findings the company has implemented standard operating procedures and sterilization processes in accordance to FDA guidelines.

These products have the potential to be contaminated with Salmonella, an organism which can cause serious and sometimes fatal infections in young children, frail or elderly people, and others with weakened immune systems. Healthy persons infected with Salmonella often experience fever, diarrhea (which may be bloody), nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. In rare circumstances, infection with Salmonella can result in the organism getting into the bloodstream and producing more severe illnesses such as arterial infections (i.e., infected aneurysms), endocarditis and arthritis.

The affected products (listed below) can be identified by Lot No.: 0102031800 and Batch No.: 031800. Specifically, the products were distributed to AK, AZ, CA, CO, CT, FL, GA, HI, IA, ID, IL, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NJ, NM NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, PR, SC, SD, TX, VA, WA, WY via the internet.

LabelSizePackaging
Gaia Ethnobotanical Bali Gold1oz, 250g, 1kgPlastic Bag
Gaia Ethnobotanical Elephant1oz, 250g, 1kgPlastic Bag
Gaia Ethnobotanical Ganesh MD1oz, 250g, 1kgPlastic Bag
Gaia Ethnobotanical Green Dragon1oz, 250g, 1kgPlastic Bag
Gaia Ethnobotanical Green Horn1oz, 250g, 1kgPlastic Bag
Gaia Ethnobotanical Green Kapuas Hulu1oz, 250g, 1kgPlastic Bag
Gaia Ethnobotanical Green Malay1oz, 250g, 1kgPlastic Bag
Gaia Ethnobotanical Green MD1oz, 250g, 1kgPlastic Bag
Gaia Ethnobotanical Green Thai1oz, 250g, 1kgPlastic Bag
Gaia Ethnobotanical Plantation Green MD1oz, 250g, 1kgPlastic Bag
Gaia Ethnobotanical Plantation Red MD1oz, 250g, 1kgPlastic Bag
Gaia Ethnobotanical Plantation White MD1oz, 250g, 1kgPlastic Bag
Gaia Ethnobotanical Purple 8-11oz, 250g, 1kgPlastic Bag
Gaia Ethnobotanical Red Bali1oz, 250g, 1kgPlastic Bag
Gaia Ethnobotanical Red Borneo1oz, 250g, 1kgPlastic Bag
Gaia Ethnobotanical Red Dragon1oz, 250g, 1kgPlastic Bag
Gaia Ethnobotanical Red Horn1oz, 250g, 1kgPlastic Bag
Gaia Ethnobotanical Red Kapuas Hulu1oz, 250g, 1kgPlastic Bag
Gaia Ethnobotanical Red MD1oz, 250g, 1kgPlastic Bag
Gaia Ethnobotanical Red Thai1oz, 250g, 1kgPlastic Bag
Gaia Ethnobotanical Super Green Malay1oz, 250g, 1kgPlastic Bag
Gaia Ethnobotanical White Borneo1oz, 250g, 1kgPlastic Bag
Gaia Ethnobotanical White Horn1oz, 250g, 1kgPlastic Bag
Gaia Ethnobotanical White MD1oz, 250g, 1kgPlastic Bag
Gaia Ethnobotanical White Thai1oz, 250g, 1kgPlastic Bag
Gaia Ethnobotanical Yellow Thai1oz, 250g, 1kgPlastic Bag
Gaia Ethnobotanical Yellow Vietnam1oz, 250g, 1kgPlastic Bag

Gaia is notifying its customers by e-mail and/or telephone and are urged to return the recalled products to us or immediately discard them.

Consumers with questions regarding this recall can contact the company at  [email protected] or call 24/7 at 702-996-8523.

Sours: https://www.fda.gov/safety/recalls-market-withdrawals-safety-alerts/gaia-ethnobotanical-llc-voluntarily-recalls-kratom-products-due-potential-salmonella-contamination

Ethnobotanicals kratom

African Herbs for Sale

African herbs and remedies are amongst the oldest on the planet as native cultures have harnessed the power of plants and herbs for millennia. In fact, African tribes have used plants in a range of different ways since well before recorded history. This has led to the discovery of many potent African herbs that you can buy in our ethnobotanical shop. While kratom is not amongst them — kratom (MitragynaSpeciosa) is actually native to Asia! — African cultures have discovered a variety of plants like kratom including the widespread blue lotus flower, native Akuamma seeds, and kanna.

The Best Plants Like Kratom: Akuamma Seeds and Beyond

Africa is home to a vast range of different environments and climate conditions, from the driest deserts on the planet to lush tropical regions, vast savannahs, and grasslands. These greatly varying temperate zones have made this continent — regarded as the place where the human species first originated — home to a diverse variety of plants similar to kratom including traditionally-used African herbs like kanna, blue lotus, and Akuamma seeds.

Our Commitment to the Best Ethnobotanicals in the World

At Kratora, we’ve traveled the world seeking out some of the most interesting and cherished botanicals and plants similar to kratom in Africa to offer in our online ethnobotanical shop. These African herbs and plants were historically used as African herbal remedies, but they’re now gaining lots of attention amongst researchers and botanical enthusiasts alike. We’re excited to introduce these incredible finds, such as our Akuamma seeds, blue lotus products, and fermented kanna to buyers worldwide.

In fact, if you know about a remarkable African herb similar to kratom that you’d like to see added to Kratora’s online shop, we invite you to contact us. Shop our incredible varieties of kratom strains and kratom alternatives today to receive same-day shipping on orders submitted before 3 p.m. Eastern Time Monday through Friday and 1 p.m. Eastern Time on Saturdays (excluding holidays).

Please note that the US FDA has not approved kratom to be sold for human consumption, sold for external use only. None of the products sold on our website are intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease or medical condition.

Sours: https://buykratom.us/african-ethnobotanicals/
Kratom Ethnobotanical Visionary Herbals

Alone on Max's bed, and he, carefully covered with a sheet, snored on mine and. Also alone. Soon to get up, now I would like to soak up the nap, but I wanted to piss desperately. Pulling the stream down the toilet, I examined the rubbed edges of the flesh.

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Don't you want anything from me. - It is necessary. That would not do stupid things. Sleep. - Grandpa, I love you.



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