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Seismic strengthening of clay block masonry buildings with composites: an experimental study of a full scale three-storey building model

Abstract

The efficiency of strengthening of unreinforced hollow clay block masonry buildings with fibre reinforced mortar coatings has been investigated. A full scale three-storey building model and a series of accompanying walls have been built and tested. Reference unstrengthened, and strengthened specimens of each type have been tested by subjecting them to cyclic shear at constant compressive load. First, the three-storey model was tested in its original state until the maximum resistance was attained and major, but still repairable damage, developed in the walls. Then, the damaged model was strengthened with fabric reinforced cementitious mortar coating and re-tested up to near collapse limit state. Typical storey mechanism was observed in original and strengthened state, with the majority of damage concentrated in the walls of the bottom storey. Diagonally oriented shear cracks prevailed in the elements in the direction of loading. The behaviour of single walls in cyclic shear tests was similar to that observed in the piers of the building models. The analysis of test results indicated that the resistance and displacement capacity of unreinforced masonry structures of the particular type tested can be significantly improved if delamination and separation of coating is prevented. Finally, a calculation model for the assessment of seismic resistance of reference and strengthened building model is presented and the comparison between calculated and experimental results discussed.

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Acknowledgements

The research presented in this article was carried out within the research projects J2-6749 and ARRS-MR-496, financed by Slovenian Research Agency.

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, Dimičeva ulica 12, 1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia

    Petra Triller & Miha Tomaževič

  2. Faculty of Civil and Geodeting Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Jamova cesta 2, 1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia

    Matija Gams

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Petra Triller.

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Triller, P., Tomaževič, M. & Gams, M. Seismic strengthening of clay block masonry buildings with composites: an experimental study of a full scale three-storey building model. Bull Earthquake Eng17, 4049–4080 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-019-00609-0

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Keywords

  • Unreinforced masonry
  • Laboratory testing
  • Cyclic shear test
  • Glass fibre reinforced polymers (GFRP)
  • Coating
  • Strengthening
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Large scale introduction of Zero Energy Buildings in the Nordic power system

Abstract: The objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of a large deployment of Zero Energy Buildings (ZEB) in Norway on utilization of hydropower in 2030. A ZEB is a building with low energy demand, which produces on an annual basis, as much renewable energy as its energy consumption, and is considered as one of the key elements to reach EUs 20-20-20 goals. The simulations are conducted using a detailed power market model of the Nordic countries, i.e. Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland. The findings show that ZEBs mainly influence the optimal operation of the power system in two ways, 1) through their lower electricity demand, and 2) through their on-site PV production. Hydro power contributes to 50 % of the total power generation in the Nordic countries. Because PV generates power before the spring flooding occurs, the power producers go lower in the hydro reservoirs, thus lowering the spillage of water, which increases the hydro power production with 0,5 %. Further, the introduction of ZEBs leads to 4-6 TWh lower coal power production, reduced power price, and 17-26 TWh increased export from the Nordic countries.

Published in: 2016 13th International Conference on the European Energy Market (EEM)

Article #:

Date of Conference: 6-9 June 2016

Date Added to IEEE Xplore: 28 July 2016

ISBN Information:

Electronic ISBN: 978-1-5090-1298-5

Print on Demand(PoD) ISBN: 978-1-5090-1299-2

ISSN Information:

Electronic ISSN: 2165-4093

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Building Scale Models

Originally Posted by Jim Policastro:

KD,

 

Unfortunately, just a junk box of HO parts found under a table at a train show for dollar or two - so I don't have any info on the original kit name or manufacturer. I agree, the windows are the best part.

 

Jim

Jim...

 

I think I stumbled onto the answer to my own question re the genesis of those neat arch-topped windows in your scene...

http://woodlandscenics.woodlandscenics.com/show/page/searchResults?cx=007918959149067016884%3Aqoqceszsb7y&cof=FORID%3A11&ie=UTF-8&q=powerhouse&sa=

 

The complete structure, the powerhouse is DPM (Woodland Scenics) kit #356.   But the windows are part of their modular wall system, and these are p/n 30118, shown on the same page in the above site.

 

I may have to get some of these and 'play' around with them for a background flat as you did.

 

Thanks, again, for the inspiration!

 

KD


 

Sours: https://ogrforum.ogaugerr.com/topic/are-there-ho-buildings-that-can-pass-for-o

Buildings 0 scale

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1. This product has been discontinued by the manufacturer and is limited to the quantity on hand.
2. This product has been discontinued by The Western Depot and is limited to the quantity on hand.
3. This item was produced exclusively for The Western Depot.
4. This item is out of print and is limited to the quantity on hand.

Sours: https://www.westerndepot.com/
Building an O-scale town

Her chest to harden, Lena, pulling the headset out of her ear and bending almost in half the length of the wire she was missing, tucked the earpiece between her legs, almost bringing it close to the barely audible buzzing toy. She straightened up. I put the microphone back in.

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