Scleroderma scalp sores

Scleroderma scalp sores DEFAULT

Scalp Conditions

Overview of scalp conditions

Most scalp conditions lead to hair loss or some type of skin rash. Many are hereditary. Malnutrition or infection can also cause scalp conditions. The treatment and your outlook depend on the condition that’s causing the scalp problems.

Pictures of different types of scalp conditions

There are many different types of scalp conditions, resulting from a variety of causes. Here’s a list of 15 possible scalp conditions.

Warning: Graphic images ahead.

Hair loss

  • You may notice a large amount of hair in the drain after you wash your hair.
  • You may find clumps of hair in your brush.
  • Hair that falls out easily with gentle pulling may be a sign of hair loss.
  • Thinning patches of hair may also indicate hair loss.

Read full article on hair loss.


Male pattern baldness

  • Hair loss at the temples of the head is a possible sign of male pattern baldness.
  • Some with male pattern baldness develop a bald spot or hairline that recedes to form an “M” shape.

Read full article on male pattern baldness.


Seborrheic eczema (cradle cap)

  • This common and self-limiting skin condition is seen in infants and young children between the ages of 3 weeks and 12 months.
  • It’s painless and non-itchy.
  • Yellowish, greasy scales appear on the scalp and forehead that flake off.
  • It usually doesn’t require medical treatment and will go away on its own in 6 months.

Read full article on seborrheic eczema.


Malnutrition

This condition is considered a medical emergency. Urgent care may be required.

  • Malnutrition is deficiency of one or many dietary vitamins or nutrients due to low intake or poor absorption in the intestines.
  • It may be caused by disease, medications, or poor diet.
  • The symptoms of a nutritional deficiency depend on which nutrient the body lacks.
  • Common symptoms include weight loss, fatigue, weakness, pale skin, hair loss, unusual food cravings, trouble breathing, heart palpitations, fainting, menstrual issues, and depression.

Read full article on malnutrition.


Psoriasis

  • Psoriasis typically results in scaly, silvery, sharply defined skin patches.
  • It’s commonly located on the scalp, elbows, knees, and lower back.
  • It may be itchy or asymptomatic (producing or showing no symptoms).

Read full article on scalp psoriasis.


Hypothyroidism

  • Noticeable symptoms usually don’t start until later in the disease process.
  • Symptoms include brittle hair and nails, hair loss, and dry skin.
  • Fatigue, weight gain, increased sensitivity to cold, constipation, and depression are other symptoms.

Read full article on hypothyroidism.


Tinea capitis

  • This is a fungal infection that affects your scalp and hair shafts.
  • Itchy, flaky patches appear on the scalp.
  • Brittle hair, hair loss, scalp pain, low fever, swollen lymph nodes are other possible symptoms.

Read full article on tinea capitis.


Hashimoto’s thyroiditis

  • Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is caused by an inappropriate immune response to the thyroid gland.
  • Low thyroid hormone causes symptoms of decreased metabolism.
  • Symptoms include thinning hair, sluggishness, fatigue, and hoarseness.
  • Other symptoms include constipation, high cholesterol, depression, and lower body muscle weakness.

Read full article on Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.


Alopecia areata

  • Alopecia areata is a skin condition that causes the immune system to mistakenly attack hair follicles, resulting in hair loss.
  • Hair loss occurs randomly all over the scalp or other parts of the body in small, smooth, quarter-sized patches that may combine into larger areas.
  • Hair loss is often not permanent, but hair may grow back slowly or fall out again after regrowth.

Read full article on alopecia areata.


Head lice

  • A louse is about the size of a sesame seed. Both lice and their eggs (nits) may be visible in the hair.
  • Extreme scalp itchiness can be caused by an allergic reaction to louse bites.
  • Sores may appear on your scalp from scratching.
  • You may feel like something is crawling on your scalp.

Read full article on head lice.


Bamboo hair

  • Bamboo hair is a defect in the structure of hair that results in brittle or fragile hair strands that break easily.
  • It leads to sparse hair growth, and eyelash or eyebrow loss.
  • Hair strands have a dry, knotty appearance.
  • It’s a common symptom of Netherton’s syndrome.

Read full article on bamboo hair.


Lichen planus

  • This uncommon disorder may affect the skin, oral cavity, scalp, nails, genitals, or esophagus.
  • Lesions develop and spread over the course of several weeks or a few months.
  • Itchy, purplish-colored lesions or bumps with flat tops appear that may be covered by thin, white lines.
  • Lacy-white lesions in the mouth occur that may be painful or cause a burning sensation.
  • Blisters that burst and become scabby are another possible symptom.

Read full article on lichen planus.


Scleroderma

  • This autoimmune disease is characterized by changes in the texture and appearance of the skin due to increased collagen production.
  • Skin thickening and shiny areas develop around the mouth, nose, fingers, and other bony areas.
  • Symptoms include swelling fingers, small, dilated blood vessels under the skin’s surface, calcium deposits under the skin, and difficulty swallowing.
  • Spasms of the blood vessels in the fingers and toes cause these digits to turn white or blue in the cold.

Read full article on scleroderma.


Graft-versus-host disease

  • This disease occurs when the immune cells within a bone marrow graft don’t match the recipient’s cells, causing the donor cells to attack the recipient’s cells.
  • The most commonly involved organs are the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and liver.
  • It can occur within 100 days after transplantation (acute GVHD) or over a longer period of time (chronic GVHD).
  • A sunburn-like itchy, painful rash appears that can cover up to 50 percent of the body.
  • Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping, diarrhea, bloody stools, and dark urine are other possible symptoms.

Read full article on graft-versus-host disease.


Leishmaniasis

  • This parasitic disease is caused by the Leishmania parasite, which infects sand flies.
  • The sand flies that carry the parasite typically reside in tropical and subtropical environments in Asia, East Africa, and South America.
  • Leishmaniasis comes in three forms: cutaneous, visceral, and mucocutaneous.
  • It causes multiple crusting skin lesions.

Read full article on leishmaniasis.

Types of scalp conditions

Conditions that lead to hair loss

One of the most common types of scalp condition involves hair loss or damage. This can range from a complete loss of hair to easy breakages or small patches of hair loss:

  • Male pattern baldness is common in men and occurs because of genetics and male sex hormones.
  • Alopecia areata is a chronic autoimmune disorder that results in a patchy balding pattern.
  • Nutritional deficiencies can cause hair loss, including protein deficiency or iron deficiency anemia.
  • Three thyroid conditions can lead to hair loss:
  • Hypopituitarism, or an underactive pituitary gland, can cause hair loss.
  • Lichen planus is a skin condition that can cause discoloration of the scalp, as well as hair loss.
  • Celiac disease is an autoimmune disease that leads to damage in the small intestine when gluten is ingested. Hair loss due to malabsorption of nutrients may result.
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disorder with hair loss as one of its symptoms.
  • Trichorrhexis nodosa occurs when hair shafts break easily. It’s normally due to genetics, but it can also be the result of certain disorders.
  • Some women notice hair loss after giving birth, which is due to the drop in hormones like estrogen. (Hair growth returns within a few months.)
  • Stress can lead to hair loss.
  • Certain medications, such as birth control pills, blood thinners, and some of the ones that treat arthritis, depression, gout, heart conditions, and high blood pressure, can lead to hair loss.
  • Eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia can lead to hair loss.
  • Some people experience temporary hair loss after an extreme weight loss of 15 pounds or more.

In addition, certain chemicals and tools people use for styling hair can lead to hair loss and damage to your scalp.

Skin conditions of the scalp

Other conditions affect the scalp because they’re skin conditions or they cause skin rashes:

  • Seborrheic eczema, or dermatitis, is a common inflammatory skin condition that causes flaky, scaly patches on the skin, especially the scalp. When those flakes fall off, it’s called dandruff.
  • Cradle cap is seborrheic eczema in infants.
  • Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin condition. In many cases, it affects the scalp, which develops red, scaly, dry patches.
  • Ringworm, or tinea capitis, is a fungal skin infection that produces ring-like patches. It’s common in children.
  • Scleroderma is a rare disease of the skin and connective tissue. It causes skin to develop patches that are tight and hard.
  • Ito syndrome, or incontinentia pigmenti achromians, is a rare birth defect that causes light patches of skin to develop on the body.
  • Graft-versus-host disease is a potential complication after having a bone marrow or stem cell transplant. A skin rash may form when the host rejects the transplanted tissue.
  • Leishmaniasis is a tropical parasite that sand flies spread. It can cause skin lesions.

Other health problems that affect the scalp

Other health problems that affect the scalp include the following:

  • Lice are small insects that infest the hair and scalp.
  • Head trauma can refer to any accident that causes skull fractures or cuts on the scalp.
  • Temporal arteritis occurs when arteries that supply the head with blood are inflamed or damaged. It results in a sensitive scalp.

Causes of scalp conditions

The exact cause of certain scalp conditions is often unknown, or multiple causes are involved, possibly due to genetics.

These include:

Others scalp conditions, like ringworm, lice, and leishmaniasis, are known to be caused by infections.

Symptoms of scalp conditions

The symptoms of scalp conditions depend on the exact condition, but they include:

  • rashes
  • hair loss or hair thinning
  • weak hair and breakages
  • itchiness
  • scaly patches
  • pain
  • tenderness

You may experience other symptoms that are characteristic of particular conditions and not necessarily related to the scalp.

Diagnosis of scalp conditions

If you suspect you have a condition that’s affecting your scalp, your healthcare provider will first want to examine your head, hair, and scalp.

Some conditions may be easy to diagnose after a visual examination, such as:

For other conditions, your healthcare provider or a specialist may need to order other tests. You may need to have a sample of blood drawn, for instance, to test for hormone levels and to determine if a thyroid or pituitary problem is to blame, or to detect a nutritional deficiency.

Treatments for scalp conditions

Treatment for scalp conditions varies depending on the diagnosis.

Prescription medications are available to help treat hair loss. Surgical implants of hair transplants are also possible. In some cases, the underlying cause of hair loss can be treated.

Supplements or dietary changes can correct nutritional deficiencies.

Medications can treat autoimmune disorders and hormone disorders.

You can treat celiac disease by avoiding gluten in your diet.

Medicated ointments and washes that kill fungi or certain insects can cure certain infections, such as ringworm and lice.

You can treat seborrheic eczema and cradle cap with medicated shampoos.

Ito syndrome and scleroderma aren’t curable, but you can manage the symptoms with medications.

Outlook for people with scalp conditions

The outlook for many people with scalp conditions is good.

Medications that slow hair growth or regrow hair are somewhat successful, and wigs are always an option if medications are not effective in treating the scalp condition.

You can get treatment for and eliminate the scalp conditions that occur due to infections.

Although some other scalp conditions aren’t curable, treatment can successfully help you manage your symptoms.

Sours: https://www.healthline.com/health/scalp-conditions

Scleroderma: Signs and symptoms

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Localised Scleroderma

What is localised scleroderma

Scleroderma is a condition that causes areas of the skin to become harder than usual. Hence the name scleroderma, which means hard skin. There are two kinds of scleroderma.

Localised scleroderma can also be part of systemic sclerosis.

Symptoms of localised scleroderma?

Localised scleroderma usually comes on gradually. Areas of the skin may be thickened and discoloured, and hair loss may occur over the affected area. There are different types of localised scleroderma. The most common types are:

Plaque morphoea

These are oval patches that can range from 2-20 cm across. They start off mauve in colour, then gradually become white. Older patches may become brown. The surface is smooth, shiny and hairless. One to three plaques may develop in different areas of the skin. This type mainly affects adults and usually has no other symptoms or problems, although the affected skin can look unsightly.

Superficial morphoea

Similar to the plaque type. It is typically seen as symmetrical mauve-coloured patches, usually in skin folds of the groin, armpits or under breasts. This type is most commonly found in middle-aged women.

Linear scleroderma

Usually occurs on an arm or leg of a child. It is a long, narrow area of thickened skin. In more severe cases the tissues just beneath the skin are affected which may cause scarring (contractures) underneath the skin.

En coup de sabre

This is a deep form of linear scleroderma affecting the scalp and temple. The name comes from its shape, meaning 'like a sword cut'. Hair is lost over the affected skin, and the skull bone may be shrunk underneath it.

Generalised morphoea

This is a rare type where there are more plaques spread around different areas of the body.

Complications of localised scleroderma?

Usually, localised scleroderma does not cause any complications. But can be linked to the systemic sclerosis form of scleroderma which involves internal organs.

Some types of localised scleroderma may affect not only the skin but the tissues directly underneath it such as bone or muscle. This only happens in the deeper types of scleroderma (linear scleroderma and en coup de sabre). In this situation, the scleroderma can affect growth in the underlying tissues and so may cause some degree of deformity. About one third of people with deep localised scleroderma have this type of problem. Rarely, if the affected skin is located on the head, the brain or eye can be affected.

Causes localised scleroderma?

The cause is not clear. What is known is that cells called fibroblasts make too much of a protein called collagen. The collagen gets deposited in the skin, causing scarring and thickening (fibrosis).

It is not known why the fibroblasts produce too much collagen in the areas of affected skin. It is probably some fault with the immune system. It is sometimes seen after the development of diseases in which the immune system attacks the body's own cells (autoimmune conditions), such as lichen sclerosus and lichen planus. It can also occur after tick bites (Lyme disease), measles, radiotherapy, local injury to the skin and pregnancy. Most of the time, however, there is no obvious cause.

How common is localised scleroderma?

Localised scleroderma is uncommon. The exact number of people affected is not known. However, it is thought that quite a number of cases are not diagnosed. This is because many people who have a small plaque or two of localised scleroderma causing no symptoms may not report it to a doctor. It is two or three times more common in women than in men. It can occur at any age and is as common in children as it is in adults. About 3 in a million children in the UK and Ireland develop localised scleroderma every year. Children are nine or ten times more likely to develop localised scleroderma than systemic sclerosis.

How is localised scleroderma diagnosed?

Localised scleroderma can usually be recognised by its appearance. The diagnosis can be confirmed by a biopsy. A biopsy is a procedure in which a small sample of skin is removed under local anaesthetic and examined under the microscope. Sometimes blood tests can give a clue but there is not a specific blood test for this condition. In some cases an ultrasound scan or a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan may be used to assess whether the scleroderma is affecting tissues underneath the skin. X-rays are occasionally used to check that children's bones are growing properly. Tests for other types of scleroderma may also be needed.

Sours: https://www.sruk.co.uk/scleroderma/understanding-scleroderma/localised-scleroderma/
Fungal Infection of the Scalp (Tinea Capitis) - Causes, Risk Factors, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

Localised Scleroderma Morphoea

What is localised scleroderma?

Scleroderma is a condition that causes areas of the skin to become harder than usual. Hence the name scleroderma, which means hard skin. There are two kinds of scleroderma.

The rest of this leaflet is only about localised scleroderma.

What are the symptoms of localised scleroderma?

Localised scleroderma usually comes on gradually. Areas of the skin may be thickened and discoloured, and hair may be lost over the area of scleroderma. There are different types of localised scleroderma. The most common types are:

  • Plaque morphoea - these are oval patches that can range from 2-20 cm across. They start off mauve in colour, then gradually become white. Older patches may become brown. The surface is smooth, shiny and hairless. One to three plaques may develop in different areas of the skin. This type mainly affects adults and usually has no other symptoms or problems, although the affected skin can look unsightly.
      
  • Superficial morphoea - is similar to the plaque type. It is typically seen as symmetrical mauve-coloured patches, usually in skin folds of the groin, armpits or under breasts. This type is most commonly found in middle-aged women.
  • Linear scleroderma - usually occurs on an arm or leg of a child. It is a long, narrow area of thickened skin. In more severe cases the tissues just beneath the skin are affected which may cause scarring (contractures) underneath the skin.
  • En coup de sabre - this is a deep form of linear scleroderma affecting the scalp and temple. The name comes from its shape, meaning 'like a sword cut'. Hair is lost over the affected skin, and the skull bone may be shrunk underneath it.
  • Generalised morphoea - this is a rare type where there are more plaques spread around different areas of the body.

Are there any complications of localised scleroderma?

Usually, localised scleroderma does not cause any complications. It is not linked to the systemic sclerosis form of scleroderma and it does not involve internal organs.

Some types of localised scleroderma may affect not only the skin but the tissues directly underneath it such as bone or muscle. This only happens in the deeper types of scleroderma (linear scleroderma and en coup de sabre). In this situation, the scleroderma can affect growth in the underlying tissues and so may cause some degree of deformity. About one third of people with deep localised scleroderma have this type of problem. Rarely, if the affected skin is located on the head, the brain or eye can be affected.

What causes localised scleroderma?

The cause is not clear. What is known is that cells called fibroblasts make too much of a protein called collagen. The collagen gets deposited in the skin, causing scarring and thickening (fibrosis).

It is not known why the fibroblasts produce too much collagen in the areas of affected skin. It is probably some fault with the immune system. It is sometimes seen after the development of diseases in which the immune system attacks the body's own cells (autoimmune conditions), such as lichen sclerosus and lichen planus. It can also occur after tick bites (Lyme disease), measles, radiotherapy, local injury to the skin and pregnancy. Most of the time, however, there is no obvious cause.

How common is localised scleroderma?

Localised scleroderma is uncommon. The exact number of people affected is not known. However, it is thought that quite a number of cases are not diagnosed. This is because many people who have a small plaque or two of localised scleroderma causing no symptoms may not report it to a doctor. It is two or three times more common in women than in men. It can occur at any age and is as common in children as it is in adults. About 3 in a million children in the UK and Ireland develop localised scleroderma every year. Children are nine or ten times more likely to develop localised scleroderma than systemic sclerosis.

How is localised scleroderma diagnosed?

Localised scleroderma can usually be recognised by its appearance. The diagnosis can be confirmed by a biopsy. A biopsy is a procedure in which a small sample of skin is removed under local anaesthetic and examined under the microscope. Sometimes blood tests can give a clue but there is not a specific blood test for this condition. In some cases an ultrasound scan or a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan may be used to assess whether the scleroderma is affecting tissues underneath the skin. X-rays are occasionally used to check that children's bones are growing properly.

What is the treatment for localised scleroderma?

The most common form, plaque morphoea, does not always need treatment. This form often does not cause symptoms and often gradually improves or clears away after a number of years. However, strong creams or ointments are sometimes used as they may help to stop it spreading. Creams which may be used include:

For other types of localised scleroderma, treatment will vary depending on the individual situation, the severity of the condition and whether underlying tissues are affected. One of the creams or ointments above may be used in some cases. If it is too widespread or too deep or too severe, one or more of the following treatments may be used:

  • Ultraviolet light therapy.
  • High-dose steroids.
  • Medicines affecting the immune system, such as methotrexate.
  • Physiotherapy or surgery may help if the skin is very tight or if there is a deformity or scar underneath the skin.

What is the outlook (prognosis)?

With the plaque morphoea type of localised scleroderma, in many cases the plaques last 3-5 years before softening and fading. The affected areas of skin may gradually go back to normal; however, a brown stain may remain and sometimes a small depressed area of skin. In some cases the plaques remain for many years.

Linear-type localised scleroderma tends to persist for longer but may improve after several years. It may come and go and may flare up after a long time of being settled. However, linear-type localised scleroderma, especially the en coup de sabre subtype, may become more extensive with time. This may cause severe contractures that result in limited movement and permanent disability of an arm or leg. Damage to underlying brain and eye tissue is a potential, serious complication of the en coup de sabre subtype.

  • Morphoea; DermNet NZ

  • Fett N; Scleroderma: nomenclature, etiology, pathogenesis, prognosis, and treatments: facts and controversies. Clin Dermatol. 2013 Jul-Aug31(4):432-7. doi: 10.1016/j.clindermatol.2013.01.010.

  • Careta MF, Romiti R; Localized scleroderma: clinical spectrum and therapeutic update. An Bras Dermatol. 2015 Jan-Feb90(1):62-73. doi: 10.1590/abd1806-4841.20152890.

  • Herrick AL, Ennis H, Bhushan M, et al; Incidence of childhood linear scleroderma and systemic sclerosis in the UK and Ireland. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2010 Feb62(2):213-8. doi: 10.1002/acr.20070.

  • Fett NM; Morphea (localized scleroderma). JAMA Dermatol. 2013 Sep149(9):1124. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2013.5079.

Sours: https://patient.info/skin-conditions/localised-scleroderma-morphoea-leaflet

Scalp sores scleroderma

Localized scleroderma: clinical spectrum and therapeutic update*

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Sours: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4323700/
What is Scleroderma? (also known as Systemic Sclerosis)

Localized Scleroderma Symptoms

Localized scleroderma is a condition characterized by varying degrees of hardening of the skin, which happens because of abnormal collagen deposits.

Unlike systemic scleroderma, localized scleroderma rarely involves internal organs. But it can affect tissue directly under the skin — such as the muscles, nerves, and bones. Localized scleroderma is more common in children, who have a condition known as juvenile scleroderma.

Morphea and its progression

Morphea is a term that doctor use to describe the skin changes in localized scleroderma, although it is sometimes used to describe the disease itself.

Morphea usually changes in a predictable fashion over time. The first sign of it is a purplish or reddish area of hardened, slightly depressed skin. The area then becomes bigger, developing a whitish center. The skin thins, tightens and becomes surrounded by a ring of darkened skin. Morphea may itch, but is usually painless.

Types of localized scleroderma

The type of localized scleroderma that a person has is based on the area of the body that’s affected, and the shape of the abnormality. The types are:

  • Plaque morphea
  • Bullous morphea
  • Deep morphea
  • Generalized morphea
  • Linear scleroderma

Although patients have one predominant type of localized scleroderma, some may have a combination of morphea patterns.

Plaque morphea

Plaque morphea is the most common form of localized scleroderma in adults. Patients typically develop oval patches two to 20 centimeters in diameter at one or two sites and do not have other symptoms.

Bullous morphea

Patients with this rare form of localized scleroderma have the same skin problems as those with other types but can also develop large blisters called bullae or abrasions.

Generalized morphea

A person with generalized morphea has patches in more than two parts of the body.

This type of morphea is more common in women. Symptoms can be triggered by exercise and progress quickly over a few months. The patches tend to be thicker and may affect muscles and deeper tissue. Movement can be restricted if the skin over the joints is affected.

Deep morphea

Patients with deep morphea — also known as subcutaneous morphea or morphea profunda — usually have only one patch of affected skin.

But because there is damage to underlying tissue, they are at increased risk of experiencing restricted movements.

In addition, ulcers, or sores, are more likely to form over these types of patches because the skin is more fragile, less elastic, and receives less blood.

Linear scleroderma

Linear scleroderma is the most common form of localized scleroderma in children. Instead of patches, there are long, narrow streaks of hardened skin.

This type of scleroderma is the most likely to affect the muscles and bones beneath the skin, disturbing growth and causing bone deformities. Patients can lose hair if their scalp is affected.

Some patients have gradual shrinking of the skin on one side of the face, and both the fat tissue and bones under the skin. This type of linear scleroderma is called Parry-Romberg syndrome, or progressive hemifacial atrophy. The tongue muscles on the side of the face that’s affected can be underdeveloped, and patients can have dental problems due to altered teeth and jaw positions. Seizures, severe face pain, and eye problems can also occur.

Patients are said to have en coup de sabre scleroderma when they have a streak of hard thickened skin that extends from their forehead to their scalp. The phrase means “like a sword cut” in English.

The jaw, teeth, and tongue can also be affected in this condition, but unlike Parry-Romberg syndrome, the brain, eyes, and nerves in the face are usually spared.

Patients with linear scleroderma that affects the rest of the body can have features of both Parry-Romberg syndrome and en coup de sabre scleroderma.

***

Scleroderma News is strictly a news and information website about the disease. It does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. This content is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website.

Sours: https://sclerodermanews.com/scleroderma-skin-condition-many-forms/

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